Tuesday, April 11, 2017

Afro-American and Native American Shared R1 Y-Chromosomes

There are a number of Y-chromosome Haplogroups shared by mongoloid Native Americas and Afro-Americans.


I can not find any information on V88 among Afro-Americans. But I have found information on the frequency of haplogroup R among Afro-Americans.

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Haplogroup E-P1 is called E1b1a1 .In the Hammer et al (2006) study while 63% of Afro-Americans carry this haplogroup,1.3% Native Americans carry the same haplogroup. 
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The second most frequent Y-chromosome among Afro-Americans is R1b. In the Vallone and Butler (2004) study AAs carried around 0.3% R-M207, and 23% R1b.
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Miller et al (2006) did a detailed study of Afro-American and Native American Y-Chromosome. Miller et al (2006) revealed that NA and AAs share many R haplogroups including R-M17 and R-M207. It is interesting to note that in relation to R-M269, that 21% carried this haplogroup, while 17.0 of AAs carried the same haplogroup. This is interesting because there is very little statistical difference between 17% and 21%.

Sunday, April 9, 2017

Why We Find Discrepancies in African and Non-African Admixture/Structure Studies

We may never know the admixture between Native Americans and Africans if we wait to get the information from researchers because they are attempting to maintain the status quo.

Discrepancies take place because researchers do not want to tell the truth about the genetic histories of African people and their admixture with Native Americans and Eurasians. As a result, researchers have developed methods to exclude evidence of non-Africans carrying haplogroups mtDNA haplogroups L, and y-Chromosomes E and A.


This is due to the protocols of AdMixture and Structure programs that assume that Native Americans, Europeans and Africans only met after 1492. As a result researchers try to find methods to exclude African presence in European and Native Americans so evidence of this admixture will not be evidenced in the final results. Next researchers claim that if African people carry mtDNA haplogroups: N, R, M and D ; and Y-Chromosomes C, Q, I, J, and R, they are carrying Eurasians haplogroups, eventhough all of these haplogroups are found among African populations that have no history of admixture with Europeans. As a result, these haplogroups are probably of African origin--not a back migration.

Researchers believe this evidence should be excluded because any African admixture among these populations have to be recent.
The best example of how African admixture is excluded in research is Reich, D. et al, Reconstructing Native American population history. Nature 488, 370-374 (2012) Paper web page , the method used to exclude African admixture from this study is detailed in Supplementary Material 1.Reich, D. et al (2012) outlines the motivations for the exclusion of Africans from his study:

quote:
  • (i) Motivation
    There were a number of populations for which we did not have access to unadmixed samples. To learn about the history of such populations, we needed to adjust for the presence of non-Native ancestry. We used three complementary approaches to do this. The concordance of results from all these approaches increases our confidence in the key findings of this study.

    (1) Restricting to unadmixed samples: We restricted some analyses to 163 Native American samples (34 populations) without any evidence of recent European or African admixture (Note S2). A limitation of these studies, however, is that we could not analyze 16 populations in which all individuals were inferred to have some degree of recent admixture.

    (2) Local ancestry masking: We identified segments of the genome in each individual that had an appreciable probability of harboring non-Native American or Siberian ancestry. We then created a “masked” dataset that treated genetic data in these sections as missing (Note S4).

    (3) Ancestry Subtraction: We explicitly corrected for the effect of the estimated proportion of European and African in each sample by adjusting the value of f4-statistics by the amount that is expected from this admixture. This is discussed in what follows.

    (ii) Details of Ancestry Subtraction
    Assume that we have an accurate estimate of African and European ancestry for each sample (whether it is an individual or a pool of individuals). In practice, we used the ADMIXTURE k=4 estimates, because as described below, they appear to be accurate for Native American populations (with the possible exception of Aleuts as we discuss below). We can then define:

    a = % African ancestry in a test sample
    e = % European ancestry in a test sample
    1-a-e = % Native ancestry

    For many of our analyses, we are computing f4 statistics, whose values are affected in a known way by European and African admixture. Thus, we can algebraically correct for the effect of recent European or African admixture on the test statistics, obtaining an “Ancestry Subtracted” statistic that is what is expected for the sample if it had no recent European or African ancestry.

    The main context in which we compute f4 statistics is in our implementation of the 4 Population Test, to evaluate whether the allele frequency correlation patterns in the data are consistent with the proposed tree ((Unadmixed, Test),(Outgroup1, Outgroup2)), where the Unadmixed population is a set of Native American samples assumed to derive all of their ancestry from the initial population that peopled America, the Test population is another Native American population, and the two outgroups are Asian populations. An f4 statistic consistent with zero suggests that the Unadmixed and Test populations form a clade with no evidence of ancestry from more recent streams of gene flow from Asia. If the Test population harbors recent European or African ancestry, however, a significant deviation of this statistic from zero would be expected, making it difficult to interpret the results. We thus compute a linear combination of f4 statistics that is expected to equal what we would obtain if we had access to the Native American ancestors of the Test population without recent European or African admixture:

    S_1=(f_4 (Unadmixed,Test;Out1,Out2)-(a) f_4 (Unadmixed,Yoruba;Out1,Out2)-(e) f_4 (Unadmixed,French;Out1,Out2))/(1-a-e) (S3.1)

    Intuitively, this statistic is subtracting the contribution to the f4 statistic that is expected from their proportion a of West African-like ancestry (Yoruba), and their proportion e of West Eurasian-like ancestry (French). We then renormalize by 1/(1-a-e) to obtain the statistic that would be expected if the sample was unadmixed.

    A potential concern is that the African and European ancestry in any real Native American test sample is not likely to be from Yoruba and French exactly; instead, it will be from related populations. However, S1 is still expected to have the value we wish to compute if we choose the outgroups to be East Asians or Siberians. The reason is that genetic differences between Yoruba and the true African ancestors, and French and the true European ancestors, are not expected to be correlated to the frequency differences between two East Asian or Siberian outgroups. Specifically, the allele frequency differences are due to history within Africa or Europe, which is not expected to be correlated to allele frequency differences within East Asia and within Siberia.

    (iii) Ancestry Subtraction gives results concordant with those on unadmixed samples
    To compare the performance of our three approaches to address the confounder of recent European and African admixture, we computed 48 = 8×6 statistics of the form f4(Unadmixed, Test; Han, San). We choose “Unadmixed” to be one of 8 Native American groups from Meso-America southward that have sample sizes of at least two and for which all samples are inferred to be unadmixed by ADMIXTURE k=4 (Chane, Embera, Guahibo, Guaymi, Karitiana, Kogi, Surui and Waunana). We choose “Test” to be one of 8 Native American populations from Meso-America southward with at least two samples that are entirely unadmixed, and that also have at least two samples that have >5% non-Native admixture according to the ADMIXTURE k=4 analysis (Aymara, Cabecar, Pima, Tepehuano, Wayuu and Zapotec1). This allows us to compare results on admixed and unadmixed samples from the same population.

    If the Test population harbors European or West African admixture that we have not corrected, we expect to see a significant deviation of the statistic from zero. For example, f4(Karitiana, French; Han, San), corresponding to the statistic expected for an entirely European-admixed Native American population, is significant at Z = 45 standard errors from zero, and f4(Karitiana, Yoruba; Han, San), which gives the f4-value we would expect for an entirely West African-admixed Native American population, is significant at Z = 101.

    Figure S3.1 shows the scatterplots of Z-scores we obtain without Ancestry Subtraction, with Ancestry Subtraction, and with local ancestry masking (Note S4). The x-axis shows data for the unadmixed samples from each Test population, while the y-axis shows the results for the >5% admixed samples from the same populations. We find that:
    • Without Ancestry Subtraction there are significant deviations from zero (|Z|>3) (Fig. S3.1A)
    • With Ancestry Subtraction, there are no residual |Z|-scores >3 (Figure S3.1B)
    • With local ancestry masking (Note S4), there are again no residual |Z|-scores >3 (Figure S3.1C), showing that this method also appears to be appropriately correcting for the admixture.


Given the exclusion of Africans from studies like Reich, D. et al (2012), means that we are not really knowing the actual admixture among Africans and Native American that carry the accepted African haplogroups: i.e., haploroups E , L and etc.

Tuesday, April 4, 2017

The Basal Europeans were probably Sub-Saharan Africans


It has always been know that the first hunter-gatherers of Europe were  SSAs (Sub-Saharan Africans) . Now we can declare that the carriers of haplogroup R1, that introduced the European agro-pastoral cultures to Europe, i.e., Bell Beaker and Yamnaya were probably also SSAs because they carried V88.

This should not be surprising according to Turek,  the Bell Beaker culture probably began in Morocco. Neolithic migrants into Europe from the Levant were also SSA. Trenton W. Holliday, tested the hypothesis that if modern Africans had dispersed into the Levant from Africa, "tropically adapted hominids" would be represented in the archaeological history of the Levant, especially in relation to the Qafzeh-Skhul hominids.  This researcher found that the Qafzeh-Skhul hominids (20,000-10,000),were assigned to the Sub-Saharan population, along with the  Natufians samples (4000 BP). Holliday also found African fauna in the area. If they were Sub-Saharan Africans in the Levant.


Toomas Kivisild1 (2017).The study of human Y chromosome variation through ancient DNA. web page provides a detailed discussion of R1 in prehistoric Europe.

The article is interesting. It is most interesting because it places V88 in ancient Europe. It is sad that researchers fail to publish this reality.


Kivisild (2017) also made it clear that V88 is the earliest offshoot of R-M343 .
quote:



Late Neolithic, Early Bronze Age and Iron Age samples from Central and Western Europe have typically the R1b-L11, R1a1-Z283 and R1a-M417 (xZ645)
affiliation while the samples from the Yamnaya and Samara neighbourhood are different and belong to sub-clades R1b11-Z2105 and R1a2-Z93 (Allentoft et al. 2015; Cassidy et al. 2016; Haak et al. 2015; Mathieson et al. 2015; Schiffels et al. 2016).


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The R1b11-Z2015 lineage is today common in the Caucasus and Volga-Uralic region while being virtually absent in Central and Western Europe (Broushaki et al.2016). Interestingly, the earliest offshoot of extant haplogroup R1b-M343 variation, the V88 subclade, which is currently most common in Fulani speaking populations in Africa (Cruciani et al. 2010) has distant relatives in Early Neolithic samples from across wide geographic area from Iberia, Germany to Samara (Fig. 7).


The presence of the carriers of V88 in Europe makes it clear that Sub-Saharan Africans had been in Europe for an extended period of time. Moreover it is clear that 25kya SSAs carrying haplogroup R1 were in Eurasia, Africa and the Americas.
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The Basal Eurasians that are mixed into modern Europeans, who came from the Middle East, and North Africa were SSA's not Indo-European speakers.
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quote:




Interestingly, the earliest offshoot of extant haplogroup R1b-M343 variation, the V88 sub-clade, which is currently most common in Fulani speaking populations in Africa (Cruciani et al. 2010) has distant relatives in Early Neolithic samples from across wide geographic area from Iberia, Germany to Samara (Fig. 7).


This quote makes it clear the V88 sub-clade, had relatives in Early Neolithic samples from across wide geographic area from Iberia, Germany to Samara. This would place carriers of V88 among the Yamnaya and Bell Beaker people. Given the wide distribution of M269 in Africa, the carriers of this haplogroup were probably also Africans since the Bell Beaker people/culture originated in Morocco as noted by Turek (2012) and the Neolithic people of the Levant were also SSA  as proven by Holliday (2000). 

Reference:

Holiday, T. (2000). Evolution at the Crossroads: Modern Human Emergence in Western Asia, American Anthropologist,102(1) .

Turek, J. 2012: Chapter 8 - Origin of the Bell Beaker phenomenon. The Moroccan connection, In: Fokkens, H. & F. Nicolis (eds) 2012: Background to Beakers. Inquiries into regional cultural backgrounds of the Bell Beaker complex. Leiden: Sidestone Press. https://www.academia.edu/1988928/Turek_J._2012_Chapter_8_-_Origin_of_the_Bell_Beaker_phenomenon._The_Moroccan_connection_In_Fokkens_H._and_F._Nicolis_eds_2012_Background_to_Beakers ._Inquiries_into_regional_cultural_backgrounds_of_the_Bell_Beaker_complex._Leiden_Sidestone_Press

Thursday, March 23, 2017

Rig Veda Proves the Aryan Invasion Theory (AIT) is not a Myth

The population of India is divided into two major populations: Ancient North Indians (ANI) and Ancient South Indians (ASI). The ANI live in North India and speak predominantly Indo-Arya languages. The ASI live is South India and speak  Dravidian languages.
  • The ANI Indo-Aryan speakers did not come into India peacefully, the Rig Veda supports the Aryan Invasion Theory

  • Image result for indo-Aryan warriors
  • Firstly, the Vedas talk about wars in North India between the Vedic and non-Vedic people who lived in pura or tripura (walled cities or forts). The Vedas make it clear that the Aryans invaded India.

    Thusly, Indra was called the puramdar “fort destroyer. There is nothing in the vedic literature that refers to South India.

    The term dasa referred to people, not spiritual matters as you alledge. In Ralph T.H. Griffth (trs) Rig Veda (1896) of Book 2 hymn X1:18 we read “Thou hast disclosed the light to light the Arya; on they left hand, O indra, sank the Dasyu. [19] May we gain wealth, subduing with thou succour and the Aryas, all our foes, the Dasyus”. This makes it clear the Arya/Vedic people were attacking the Dasa/ Dasyus to steal their wealth and legacy. The presence of Indo-Aryan speakers in the North illustrates their success.


    The name for cities, the term used in the Rigveda is pur, meaning a 'rampart', 'fort' or 'stronghold' ….. Indra, the Aryan god, is puramdar, 'fort destroyer'…. In brief, 'he rends forts as age consumes a garment'.


    In the Rig Veda, tr. by Ralph T.H. Griffith, [1896], at sacred-texts.com, provides many verses showing that the Aryans came into India in a violent manner.


    17 The Vārṣāgiras unto thee, O Indra, the Mighty One, sing forth this laud to please thee,
    Ṛjrāśva with his fellows, Ambarīṣa, Surādhas, Sahadeva, Bhayamāna.
    18 He, much invoked, hath slain Dasyus and Śimyus, after his wont, and laid them low with arrows.
    The mighty Thunderer with his fair-complexioned friends won the land, the sunlight, and the waters.
    19 May Indra evermore be our protector, and unimperilled may we win the booty.
    This prayer of ours may Varuṇa grant, and Mitra, and Aditi and Sindhu, Earth and Heaven.
    HYMN C. Indra.


    5 He who is Lord of all the world that moves and breathes, who for the Brahman first before all found the Cows; Indra who cast the Dasyus down beneath his feet,—him girt by Maruts we invoke to be our Friend.


    HYMN CIII. Indra.
    1. THAT highest Indra-power of thine is distant: that which is here sages possessed aforetime.
    This one is on the earth, in heaven the other, and both unite as flag with flag in battle.
    2 He spread the wide earth out and firmly fixed it, smote with his thunderbolt and loosed the waters.
    Maghavan with his puissance struck down Ahi, rent Rauhiṇa to death and slaughtered Vyaṁsa.
    armed with his bolt and trusting in his prowess he wandered shattering the forts of Dāsas.t thy dart, knowing, Thunderer, at the Dasyu; increase the Ārya's might and glory, Indra.
    4 For him who thus hath taught these human races, Maghavan, bearing a fame-worthy title,
    Thunderer, drawing nigh to slay the Dasyus, hath given himself the name of Son for glory.
    5 See this abundant wealth that he possesses, and put your trust in Indra's hero vigour.
    He found the cattle, and he found the horses, he found the plants, the forests and the waters.
    6 To him the truly strong, whose deeds are many, to him the strong Bull let us pour the Soma.
    The Hero, watching like a thief in ambush, goes parting the possessions of the godless.
    7 Well didst thou do that hero deed, O Indra, in waking with thy bolt the slumbering Ahi.
    in thee, delighted, Dames divine rejoiced them, the flying Maruts and all Gods were joyful.
    8 As thou hast smitten Śuṣṇa, Pipru, Vṛtra and Kuyava, and Śambara's forts, O Indra.
    This prayer of ours may Varuṇa grant, and Mitra, and Aditi and Sindhu, Earth and Heaven.

    Image result for indo-Aryan warriors

    HYMN CXXX. Indra.
    1. Come to us, Indra, from afar, conducting us even as a lord of heroes to the gatherings, home, like a King, his heroes' lord.
    We come with gifts of pleasant food, with juice poured forth, invoking thee,
    As sons invite a sire, that thou mayst get thee strength thee, bounteousest, to get thee strength.
    2 O Indra, drink the Soma juice pressed out with stones. poured from the reservoir, as an ox drinks the spring, a very thirsty bull the spring.
    For the sweet draught that gladdens thee, for mightiest freshening of thy strength.
    Let thy Bay Horses bring thee hither as the Sun, as every day they bring the Sun.
    3 He found the treasure brought from heaven that lay concealed, close-hidden, like the nestling of a bird, in rock, enclosed in never-ending rock.
    Best Aṅgiras, bolt-armed, he strove to win, as ’twere, the stall of kine;
    So Indra hath disclosed the food concealed, disclosed the doors, the food that lay concealed.
    4 Grasping his thunderbolt with both hands, Indra made its edge most keen, for hurling, like a carving-knife for Ahi's slaughter made it keen.
    Endued with majesty and strength, O Indra, and with lordly might,
    Thou crashest down the trees, as when a craftsman fells, crashest them down as with an axe.
    5 Thou, Indra, without effort hast let loose the floods to run their free course down,
    like chariots, to the sea, like chariots showing forth their strength.
    They, reaching hence away, have joined their strength for one eternal end,
    Even as the cows who poured forth every thing for man, Yea, poured forth all things for mankind.
    6 Eager for riches, men have formed for thee this song, like as a skilful craftsman fashioneth a car, so have they wrought thee to their bliss;
    Adorning thee, O Singer, like a generous steed for deeds of might,
    Yea, like a steed to show his strength and win the prize, that he may bear each prize away.
    7 For Pūru thou hast shattered, Indra ninety forts, for Divodāsa thy boon servant with thy bolt, O Dancer, for thy worshipper.
    For Atithigva he, the Strong, brought Śambara. from the mountain down,
    Distributing the mighty treasures with his strength, parting all treasures with his strength.
    8 Indra in battles help his Āryan worshipper, he who hath hundred helps at hand in every fray, in frays that win the light of heaven.
    Plaguing the lawless he gave up to Manu's seed the dusky skin;
    Blazing, ’twere, he burns each covetous man away, he burns, the tyrannous away.
    9 Waxed strong in might at dawn he tore the Sun's wheel off. Bright red, he steals away their speech, the Lord of Power, their speech he steals away from them,
    As thou with eager speed, O Sage, hast come from far away to help,
    As winning for thine own all happiness of men, winning all happiness each day.
    10 Lauded with our new hymns, O vigorous in deed, save us with strengthening help, thou Shatterer of the Forts!
    Thou, Indra, praised by Divodāsa's clansmen, as heaven grows great with days, shalt wax in glory.

    BOOK 2
    HYMN XI. Indra.
    1. HEAR thou my call, O Indra; be not heedless: thine may we be for thee to give us treasures;
    For these presented viands, seeking riches, increase thy strength like streams of water flowing.
    2 Floods great and many, compassed by the Dragon, thou badest swell and settest free, O Hero.
    Strengthened by songs of praise thou rentest piecemeal the Dāsa, him who deemed himself immortal.
    3 For, Hero, in the lauds wherein thou joyedst, in hymns of praise, O Indra, songs of Rudras,
    These streams in which is thy delight approach thee, even as the brilliant ones draw near to Vāyu.
    4 We who add strength to thine own splendid vigour, laying within thine arms the splendid thunder—
    With us mayst thou, O Indra, waxen splendid, with Sūrya overcome the Dāsa races.
    5 Hero, thou slewest in thy valour Ahi concealed in depths, mysterious, great enchanter,
    Dwelling enveloped deep within the waters, him who checked heaven and stayed the floods from flowing.
    6 Indra, we laud thy great deeds wrought aforetime, we laud thine exploits later of achievement;
    We laud the bolt that in thine arms lies eager; we laud thy two Bay Steeds, heralds of Sūrya.
    7 Indra, thy Bay Steeds showing forth their vigour have sent a loud cry out that droppeth fatness.
    The earth hath spread herself in all her fulness: the cloud that was about to move hath rested.
    8 Down, never ceasing, hath the rain-cloud settled: bellowing, it hath wandered with the Mothers.
    Swelling the roar in the far distant limits, they have spread wide the blast sent forth by Indra.
    9 Indra hath hurled down the magician Vṛtra who lay beleaguering the mighty river.
    Then both the heaven and earth trembled in terror at the strong Hero's thunder when he bellowed.
    10 Loud roared the mighty Hero's bolt of thunder, when he, the Friend of man, burnt up the monster,
    And, having drunk his fill of flowing Soma, baffled the guileful Dānava's devices.
    11 Drink thou, O Hero Indra, drink the Soma; let the joy-giving juices make thee joyful.
    They, filling both thy flanks, shall swell thy vigour. The juice that satisfies hath helped Indra.
    12 Singers have we become with thee, O Indra: may we serve duly and prepare devotion.
    Seeking thy help we meditate thy praises: may we at once enjoy thy gift of riches.
    13 May we be thine, such by thy help, O Indra, as swell thy vigour while they seek thy favour.
    Give us, thou God, the riches that we long for, most powerful, with stare of noble children.
    14 Give us a friend, give us an habitation; Indra, give us the company of Maruts,
    And those whose minds accord with theirs, the Vāyus, who drink the first libation of the Soma.
    15 Let those enjoy in whom thou art delighted. Indra, drink Soma for thy strength and gladness.
    Thou hast exalted us to heaven, Preserver, in battles, through the lofty hymns that praise thee.
    16 Great, verily, are they, O thou Protector, who by their songs of praise have won the blessing.
    They who strew sacred grass to be thy dwelling, helped by thee have got them strength, O Indra.
    17 Upon the great Trikadruka days, Hero, rejoicing thee, O Indra, drink the Soma.
    Come with Bay Steeds to drink of libation, shaking the drops from out thy beard, contented.
    Hero, assume the might wherewith thou clavest Vṛtra piecemeal, the Dānava Aurṇavābha.
    Thou hast disclosed the light to light the Ārya: on thy left hand, O Indra, sank the Dasyu.
    19 May we gain wealth, subduing with thy succour and with the Ārya, all our foes, the Dasyus.

    2. gain was that to Tṛta of our party thou gavest up Tvaṣṭar's son Viśvarūpa.
    20 He cast down Arbuda what time his vigour was strengthened by libations poured by Tṛta.
    Indra sent forth his whirling wheel like Sūrya, and aided by the Aṅgirases rent Vala.
    21 Now let that wealthy Cow of thine, O Indra, yield in return a boon to him who lauds thee.
    Give to thy praisers: let not fortune fail us. Loud may we speak, with brave men, in the assembly.

    HYMN XX. Indra.
    1. As one brings forth his car when fain for combat, so bring we power to thee—regard us, Indra—
    Well skilled in song, thoughtful in spirit, seeking great bliss from one like thee amid the Heroes.
    2 Indra, thou art our own with thy protection, a guardian near to men who love thee truly,
    Active art thou, the liberal man's defender, his who draws near to thee with right devotion.
    3 May Indra, called with solemn invocations. the young, the Friend, be men's auspicious keeper,
    One who will further with his aid the singer, the toiler, praiser, dresser of oblations.
    4 With laud and song let me extol that Indra in whom of old men prospered and were mighty.
    May he, implored, fulfil the prayer for plenty of him who worships, of the living mortal.
    5 He, Indra whom the Aṅgirases' praise delighted, strengthened their prayer and made their goings prosper.
    Stealing away the mornings with the sunlight, he, lauded, crushed even Aśna's ancient powers.
    2.
    3. He verily, the God, the glorious Indra, hath raised him up for man, best Wonder-Worker.
    He, self-reliant, mighty and triumphant, brought low the dear head of the wicked Dāsa.
    7 Indra the Vṛtra-slayer, Fort-destroyer, scattered the Dāsa hosts who dwelt in darkness.For men hath he created earth and waters, and ever helped the prayer of him who worships.
    8 To him in might the Gods have ever yielded, to Indra in the tumult of the battle.
    When in his arms they laid the bolt, he slaughtered the Dasyus and cast down their forts of iron.
    9 Now may that wealthy Cow of thine, O Indra, give in return a boon to him who lauds thee.

    Give to thy praisers: let not fortune fail us. Loud may we speak, with heroes, in assembly.


    BOOK 3

    HYMN XXXI. Indra.
    1. WISE, teaching, following the thought of Order, the sonless gained a grandson from his daughter.
    Fain, as a sire, to see his child prolific, he sped to meet her with an eager spirit.
    2 The Son left not his portion to the brother, he made a home to hold him who should gain, it.
    What time his Parents gave the Priest his being, of the good pair one acted, one promoted.
    3 Agni was born trembling with tongue that flickered, so that the Red's great children should be honoured.
    Great is their germ, that born of them is mighty, great the Bays' Lord's approach through sacrifices.
    4 Conquering bands upon the Warrior waited: they recognized great light from out the darkness.
    The conscious Dawns went forth to meet his coming, and the sole Master of the kine was Indra.
    5 The sages freed them from their firmbuilt prison: the seven priests drove them forward with their spirit.
    All holy Order's pathway they discovered he, full of knowledge, shared these deeds through worship.
    6 When Saramā had found the mountain's fissure, that vast and ancient place she plundered thoroughly.
    In the floods' van she led them forth, light-footed: she who well knew came first unto their lowing.
    7 Longing for friendship came the noblest singer: the hill poured forth its treasure for the pious.
    The Hero with young followers fought and conquered, and straightway Aṅgiras was singing praises,
    8 Peer of each noble thing, yea, all excelling, all creatures doth he know, he slayeth Śuṣṇa.
    Our leader, fain for war, singing from heaven, as Friend he saved his lovers from dishonour.
    9 They sate them down with spirit fain for booty, making with hymns a way to life eternal.
    And this is still their place of frequent session, whereby they sought to gain the months through Order.
    10 Drawing the milk of ancient seed prolific, they joyed as they beheld their own possession.
    Their shout of triumph heated earth and heaven. When the kine showed, they bade the heroes rouse them.
    11 Indra drove forth the kine, that Vṛtra-slayer, while hymns of praise rose up and gifts were offered.
    For him the Cow, noble and far-extending, poured pleasant juices, bringing oil and sweetness.
    12 They made a mansion for their Father, deftly provided him a great and glorious dwelling;
    With firm support parted and stayed the Parents, and, sitting, fixed him there erected, mighty.
    13 What time the ample chalice had impelled him, swift waxing, vast, to pierce the earth and heaven,—
    Him in whom blameless songs are all united: all powers invincible belong to Indra.
    14 I crave thy powers, I crave thy mighty friendship: full many a team goes to the Vṛtra-slayer.
    Great is the laud, we seek the Princes' favour. Be thou, O Maghavan, our guard and keeper.
    15 He, having found great, splendid, rich dominion, sent life and motion to his friends and lovers.
    Indra who shone together with the Heroes begot the song, the fire, and Sun and Morning.
    16 Vast, the House-Friend, he set the waters flowing, all-lucid, widely spread, that move together.
    By the wise cleansings of the meath made holy, through days, and nights they speed the swift streams onward.
    17 To thee proceed the dark, the treasure-holders, both of them sanctified by Sūrya's bounty.
    The while thy ovely storming Friends, O Indra, fail to attain the measure of thy greatness.
    18 Be Lord of joyous songs, O Vṛtra-slayer, Bull dear to all, who gives the power of living.
    Come unto us with thine auspicious friendship, hastening, Mighty One, with mighty succours.
    19 Like Aṅgiras I honour him with worship, and renovate old song for him the Ancient.
    Chase thou the many godless evil creatures, and give us, Maghavan, heaven's light to help me


    20 Far forth are spread the purifying waters convey thou us across them unto safety.
    Save us, our Charioteer, from harm, O Indra, soon, very soon, make us win spoil of cattle.
    21 His kine their Lord hath shown, e’en Vṛtra's slayer, through the black hosts he passed with red attendants.
    Teaching us pleasant things by holy Order, to, us hath he thrown open all his portals.
    22 Call we on Maghavan, auspicious Indra, best Hero in this fight where spoil is gathered.
    The Strong who listens, who gives aid in battles, who slays the Vṛtras, wins and gathers riches.



    HYMN XXXII. Indra
    1. DRINK thou this Soma, Indra, Lord of Soma; drink thou the draught of noonday which thou Iovest.
    Puffing thy cheeks, impetuous, liberal Giver, here loose thy two Bay Horses and rejoice thee.
    2 Quaff it pure, meal-blent, mixt with milk, O Indra; we have poured forth the Soma for thy rapture.
    Knit with the prayer-fulfilling band of Maruts, yea, with the Rudras, drink till thou art sated;
    3 Those who gave increase to thy strength and vigour; the Maruts singing forth thy might, O Indra.
    Drink thou, O fair of cheek, whose hand wields thunder, with Rudras banded, at our noon libation.
    4 They, even the Maruts who were there, excited with song the meath-created strength of Indra.
    By them impelled to act he reached the vitals Of Vṛtra, though he deemed that none might wound him.
    5 Pleased, like a man, with our libation, Indra, drink, for enduring hero might, the Soma.
    Lord of Bays, moved by sacrifice come hither: thou with the Swift Ones stirrest floods and waters.
    6 When thou didst loose the streams to run like racers in the swift contest, having smitten Vṛtra
    With flying weapon where he lay, O Indra, and, godless, kept the Goddesses encompassed.
    7 With reverence let us worship mighty Indra, great and sublime, eternal, everyouthful,
    Whose greatness the dear world-halves have not measured, no, nor conceived the might of him the Holy.
    8 Many are Indra's nobly wrought achievements, and none of all the Gods transgress his statutes.
    He beareth up this earth and heaven, and, doer of marvels, he begot the Sun and Morning.
    9 Herein, O Guileless One, is thy true greatness, that soon as born thou drankest up the Soma.
    Days may not check the power of thee the Mighty, nor the nights, Indra, nor the months, nor autumns.
    10 As soon as thou wast born in highest heaven thou drankest Soma to delight thee, Indra;
    And when thou hadst pervaded earth and heaven thou wast the first supporter of the singer.
    11 Thou, puissant God, more mighty, slewest. Ahi showing his strength when couched around the waters.
    The heaven itself attained not to thy greatness when with one hip of thine the earth was shadowed.
    12 Sacrifice, Indra, made thee wax so mighty, the dear oblation with the flowing Soma.
    O Worshipful, with worship help our worship, for worship helped thy bolt when slaying Ahi.
    13 With sacrifice and wish have I brought Indra; still for new blessings may I turn him hither,
    Him magnified by ancient songs and praises, by lauds of later time and days yet recent.
    14 I have brought forth a song when longing seized me: ere the decisive day will I laud Indra;
    Then may he safely bear us over trouble, as in a ship, when both sides invocate him.
    15 Full is his chalice: Glory! Like a pourer I have filled up the vessel for his drinking.
    Presented on the right, dear Soma juices have brought us Indra, to rejoice him, hither.
    16 Not the deep-flowing flood, O Much-invoked One! not hills that compass thee about restrain thee,

    Once here incited, for thy friends, O Indra, thou breakest e’en the firm built stall of cattle.
    17 Call we on Maghavan, auspicious Indra, best Hero in this fight where spoil is gathered,
    The Strong who listens, who gives aid in battles, who slays the Vṛtras, wins and gathers riches.

    HYMN XXXIV. Indra.
    1. FORT-RENDER, Lord of Wealth, dispelling foemen, Indra with lightnings hath o’ercome the Dāsa.
    Impelled by prayer and waxen great in body, he hath filled earth and heaven, the Bounteous Giver.
    2 I stimulate thy zeal, the Strong, the Hero decking my song of praise forth; Immortal.
    O Indra, thou art equally the Leader of heavenly hosts and human generations.


    Reading, his band Indra encompassed Vṛtra; weak grew the wily leader of enchanters.
    He who burns fierce in forests slaughtered Vyaṁsa, and made the Milch-kine of the nights apparent.
    4 Indra, light-winner, days' Creator, conquered, victorious, hostile bands with those who loved him.
    For man the days' bright ensign he illumined, and found the light for his joy and gladness.
    5 Forward to fiercely falling blows pressed Indra, herolike doing many hero exploits.
    These holy songs he taught the bard who gaised him, and widely spread these Dawns' resplendent colour.

    6 They laud the mighty acts of him the Mighty, the many glorious deeds performed by Indra.
    He in his strength, with all-surpassing prowess, through wondrous arts crushed the malignant Dasyus.


    7 Lord of the brave, Indra who rules the people gave freedom to the Gods by might and battle.
    Wise singers glorify with chanted praises these his achievements in Vivasvān's dwelling.
    8 Excellent, Conqueror, the victory-giver, the winner of the light and Godlike Waters,
    He who hath won this broad earth and this heaven, -in Indra they rejoice who love devotions.

    9 He gained possession of the Sun and Horses, Indra obtained the Cow who feedeth many.
    Treasure of gold he won; he smote the Dasyus, and gave protection to the Āryan colour.
    10 He took the plants and days for his possession; he gained the forest trees and air's mid-region.
    Vala he cleft, and chased away opponents: thus was he tamer of the overweening.
    11 Call we on Maghavan, auspicious Indra, best Hero in the fight where spoil is gathered,
    The Strong, who listens, who gives aid in battles, who slays the Vṛtras, wins and gathers treasures.

    HYMN XXXV Indra.
    1. MOUNT the Bay Horses to thy chariot harnessed, and come to us like Vāyu with his coursers.
    Thou, hastening to us, shalt drink the Soma. Hail, Indra. We have poured it for thy rapture.
    2 For him, the God who is invoked by many, the two swift Bay Steeds to the pole I harness,
    That they in fleet course may bring Indra hither, e’en to this sacrifice arranged completely.
    3 Bring the strong Steeds who drink the warm libation, and, Bull of Godlike nature, be thou gracious.
    Let thy Steeds eat; set free thy Tawny Horses, and roasted grain like this consume thou daily.
    4 Those who are yoked by prayer I harness, fleet friendly Bays who take their joy together.
    Mounting thy firm and easy car, O Indra, wise and all-knowing come thou to the Soma.
    5 No other worshippers must stay beside them thy Bays, thy vigorous and smooth-backed Coursers.
    Pass by them all and hasten onward hither: with Soma pressed we will prepare to feast thee.
    6 Thine is this Soma: hasten to approach it. Drink thou thereof, benevolent, and cease not.
    Sit on the sacred grass at this our worship, and take these drops into thy belly, Indra.
    7 The grass is strewn for thee, pressed is the Soma; the grain is ready for thy Bays to feed on.
    To thee who lovest them, the very mighty, strong, girt by Maruts, are these gifts presented.
    8 This the sweet draught, with cows, the men, the mountains, the waters, Indra, have for thee made ready.
    Come, drink thereof, Sublime One, friendly-minded, foreseeing, knowing well the ways thou goest.
    9 The Maruts, they with whom thou sharedst Soma, Indra, who made thee strong and were thine army,—
    With these accordant, eagerly desirous drink thou this Soma with the tongue of Agni.
    10 Drink, Indra, of the juice by thine own nature, or by the tongue of Agni, O thou Holy.
    Accept the sacrificial gift, O Śakra, from the Adhvaryu's hand or from the Hotar's.
    11 Call we on Maghavan, auspicious Indra, best Hero in the fight where spoil is gathered,
    The Strong, who listens, who.gives aid in battles, who slays the Vṛtras, wins and gathers riches.


    HYMN XXXIX. Indra.
    1. To Indra from the heart the hymn proceedeth, to him the Lord, recited, built with praises;
    The wakening song sung forth in holy synod: that which is born for thee, O Indra, notice.
    2 Born from the heaven e’en in the days aforetime, wakening, sting aloud in holy synod,
    Auspicious, clad in white and shining raiment, this is the ancient hymn of our forefathers.
    3 The Mother of the Twins hath borne Twin Children: my tongue's tip raised itself and rested silent.
    Killing the darkness at the light's foundation, the Couple newly born attain their beauty.
    4 Not one is found among them, none of mortals, to blame our sires who fought to win the cattle.
    Their strengthener was Indra the Majestic he spread their stalls of kine the Wonder-Worker.
    5 Where as a Friend with friendly men, Navagvas, with heroes, on his knees he sought the cattle.
    There, verily with ten Daśagvas Indra found the Sun lying hidden in the darkness.
    6 Indra found meath collected in the milch-cow, by foot and hoof, in the cow's place of pasture.
    That which lay secret, hidden in the waters, he held in his right hand, the rich rewarder.
    7 He took the light, discerning it from darkness: may we be far removed from all misfortune.
    These songs, O Soma-drinker, cheered by Soma, Indra, accept from thy most zealous poet.
    8 Let there be light through both the worlds for worship: may we be far from most overwhelming evil.
    Great woe comes even from the hostile mortal, piled up; but good at rescue are the Vasus.
    9 Call we on Maghavan, auspicious Indra, best Hero in the fight where spoil is gathered,
    The Strong, who listens, who gives aid in battles, who slays the Vṛtras, wins and gathers riches.


    HYMN XLIX. Indra.
    1. GREAT Indra will I laud, in whom all people who drink the Soma have attained their longing;
    Whom, passing wise, Gods, Heaven and Earth, engendered, formed by a Master's hand, to crush the Vṛtras.
    2 Whom, most heroic, borne by Tawny Coursers, verily none subdueth in the battle;
    Who, reaching far, most vigorous, hath shortened the Dasyu's life with Warriors bold of spirit.
    3 Victor in fight, swift mover like a warhorse, pervading both worlds, rainer down of blessings,
    To he invoked in war like Bhaga, Father, as ’twere, of hymns, fair, prompt to hear, strength-giver.
    4 Supporting heaven, the high back of the region, his car is Vāyu with his team of Vasus.
    Illumining the nights, the Sun's creator, like Dhiṣaṇā he deals forth strength and riches.
    5 Call we on Maghavan, auspicious Indra, best Hero in the fight where spoil is gathered;
    The Strong, who listens, who gives aid in battles, who slays the Vṛtras, wins and gathers treasure.



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Thursday, March 16, 2017

What Happened to the Blacks of China ?

The first Blacks to settle China were the Anu or pgymies. After great flood the Anu, retreated to the Kunlun Mountains.

The Kushites after the flood made their way to China from two directions. The Megalithic Kushites came to East Asia by Sea between 3000-2500 BC. They spread across China depositing the megalithic and pyramid building culture in China from the coast up into North and Central China.

By 2300 BC the Elamites (Mande speakers) and Dravidians from the Indus Valley began to migrate through Central Asia into North China. They founded the Xia Dynasty recovered much of the land that was covered by water.

The Xia Dynasty declined and the Dravidians founded the first Shang dynasty. Most of the descendants of the Xia Dynasty that did not remain with Shang became the Qiang tribes.

In the Chinese literature the Blacks were called li-min, Kunlung, Ch'iang (Qiang), Yi and Yueh. The founders of the Xia Dynasty and the Shang Dynasties were blacks. These blacks were called Yueh and Qiang. There are many beautiful artifacts depicting these Blacks in the Shaanxi and Xian Museum: http://hua.umf.maine.edu/China/xian3.html#02

In accordance with the oral traditions of China, the founders of Chinese civilization were Huangdi and Fu Xi. These legendary rulers like Dai Hao, were all buried in zhiu (burial mounds). The presence of this mound culture in China supports the traditions of burial of elects in mound tombs.

The skeletal remains from southern China are predominately negroid. (Chang 1964, p.70) The people practiced single burials.
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In northern China the blacks founded many civilizations. The three major empires of China were the Xia Dynasty (c.2205-1766 B.C), Shang/ Yin Dynasty (c.1700-1050 B.C) and the Zhou Dynasty.The Zhou dynasty was the first dynasty founded by the Mongoloid people in China called Hua (Who-aa).

The founders of Xia and Shang came from the Fertile African Crescent by way of Iran. According to Chinese legends the first man Pan Gu, used a hammer 18,000 years ago to make man.
The Chinese legends designate various culture heroes as the inventors of various aspects of Chinese civilization. 

The Chinese term for emperor is Di. Huang Di (Yellow Emperor), is the Chinese culture hero credited with introducing boats, carts 'chariots, the bow and arrow, ceramics, wooded houses and writing.

Chinese civilization began along the Yellow river . Here the soil was fertile and black Chinese farmers grew millet 4000 years ago, and later soybeans. They also raised pigs and cattle. By 3500 B.C., the blacks in China were raising silkworms and making silk.

The culture hero Huang Di is a direct link of Africa. His name was pronounced in old Chinese Yuhai Huandi or Hu Nak Kunte. He was supposed to have arrived in China from the west in 2282 B.C., and settled along the banks of the Loh river in Shanxi. This transliteration of Huandgi, to Hu Nak Kunte is interesting because Kunte is a common clan name among the Manding speakers.

The Africans or blacks that founded civilization in China were often called li min "black headed people" by the Zhou dynasts. This term has affinity to the Sumero-Akkadian term sag- gig-ga "black headed people". These li min are associated with the Chinese cultural hero Yao.

In the Annals of the Bamboo Books, we learn that Yao devised a calendar to help regulate agrarian work through proper use of ritual and music and created a rudimentary government. The Annals of the Bamboo Books, makes it clear that Yao "he united and harmonized the myriad states [of his dominion], and the [li min] black headed people were reformed by his cordial agreement".

We also read that Shun, the successor of Yao, distinguished by his reputation as an obedient devoted son, noted to : "Ki [that] the Black headed people are suffering the distress of hunger". To help relieve the people Shun gave his throne over to Yu, the founder of the Shang Dynasty. Yu, in the Annals of the Bamboo Books, is reported to have noted that "...when a sovereign gives response to the people, he is kind, and the Black headed people cherish him in their heart". P> The first dynasty of China was Xia (She-ya). The Xia dynasty lasted from 2205 to 1766 B.C. According to the Guben zhu Shu zhi Nien, the Xia dynasty "from Yu to Zhieh had seventeen kings... and lasted 471 years". (Chang 1987)

Archaeologists believe that the major Xia sites are located in Shanxi and Henan. According to Chang (1987) northern Henan towards the end of the Longshan period was the eastern part of the Xia culture.

Xia was probably situated in the Yihe and Luohe river valleys, and along the Yinghe and Ruhe rivers. The capital of Xia was located in the Sangshan mountains.

The origins of Xia go back to the Longshan period. During the Longshan period burial goods included a large number of weapons, including stone lanceheads and arrows. This suggests that intersocial conflict was at its height during the Longshan periods, and warfare may have played a role in the rise of Xia. The Longshan neolithic is characterized by wheel-made pottery, bronze working, ceramics, wheeled vehicles, writing, rich grave goods and furnishings.

The Chinese histories tell us much about Xia. According to Chinese tradition the Xia built their settlements near rivers, lakes and streams. The Xia Dynasty is mentioned in the oracle bone records.

The leaders of Xia were granted rule based on their Ssu (clan) membership. The Xia naming system employed the ten celestial stems the same as the Shang people. (Chang 1980,p.353)

The national tree of the Xia li min was the pine. This tree was used in the earth ritual.
Xia social organization, and life was based on the clan . 


The totems of the major Xia clans were aquatic animals: fish, tortoise, turtle and etc. This view is supported by the myth recorded in the Annals of the Bamboo Books, which claims that Yu's mother swallowed a spirits pearl before the birth of Di (Lord) Yu, founder of the Xia Dynasty. Moreover , the dragon motif is common at Xia sites. A pan vessel was found at Taosi, with a red painted dragon motif.

The Chinese histories make it clear that the Xia had writing and tortoise books. This view can be supported by the pottery marks on the Longshan and Erlitou pottery. (Chang 1987, p.265)

Xia is considered the first dynasty of the sandai (three Dynasties) of ancient China: Xia, Shang and Zhou. There are many references to the Xia people. The Xia people were recognized as westerners, because they settled the middle Yellow river region of China. As a result they were called the Hua Xia "the middle states people".

There are numerous textual references to Xia. Han Fei Tzu writing in the third century B.C., in his Shih Guo, observed that:
"Yu made the ritual vessels painting the interior black and the exterior in red."
The tradition recorded by Han, of the black-and-red ware for the Xia li min suggest some relationship of Xia to the Yangshao culture which also used BRW and analogous pottery signs.

Chang (1987) believes that the legendary sages and heroes of China, probably lived during the Lungshan culture period. The Lungshan culture had walled cities and evidence of rank and rituals. This clearly illustrates how archaeology can compliment textual history.
The artifacts of Erlitou include BRW, red-and-black and buff wares. These artifacts were made of stone, shell and bronze.

The bronze instruments found by archaeologists at Erlitou sites correspond to the descriptions by Yuan Kang, in the Yueh Zhueh Shu, quoting the philosopher Feng Hu Tzu of the tools made by the Xia. Yuan Kang wrote that:
"In the Age of Yu, weapons were made of bronze, for building canals...and..houses...."
The black-and-red ware (BRW) common to the Fertile African Crescent was also used in China. There is affinity between the BRW from Nubia, and the pottery from Yangshao sites in the Henan and Gansu sites of China.
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The textual history of Xia is synthesized in the Chinese book Shih Zhi. This evidence from the Shih Zhi, was used by Hsu Husheng , of the Chinese Institute of Archaeology, to find the xu (ruins) of Xia: the Xia xu. Hsu Husheng using this source hypothesized that the center for traditional Xia Dynasty towns was the Loyang plains and the Dengfeng river valley. This coincides with the Erlitou sites of this area which date to 2100- 1800 B.C.

The Xia people were recognized as being different people from the mongoloid Chinese they politically dominate China today as a people that came from the west (i.e., Iran), before they settled the middle Yellow river. A Zhou saying observed that :
"The rituals [or rules of] the Three Dynasties [sandai] are one".

The early Xia lived on mounds, in houses made of grass and mud. Pounded earth walls surrounded Xia villages to protect the li mim from attack. The Xia probably spoke a Manding language. This view is supported by the earlier discussion of the analogy between ancient Chinese and Manding.


The modern Chinese are descendants of the Hua tribes that founded Zhou. The second Shang Dynasty ( situated at Anyang) was founded by the Yin. As a result this dynasty is called Shang-Yin. The Yin or Oceanic Mongoloid type is associated with the Austronesian speakers ( Kwang-chih Chang, "Prehistoric and early historic culture horizons and traditions in South China", Current Anthropology, 5 (1964) pp.359-375 :375). 

The Classical Mongoloids, Austronesian or Oceanic Mongoloid type were called Yin, Feng, Yen, Zhiu Yi and Lun Yi.

The Classical mongoloids appear to may have originated in Anatolia. The Han and Mongolians (the taller) mongoloids originated in the Tian Shan mountains.

During the Anyang-Shang period, the Qiang lived in Ch'iang Fang, a country to the west of Yin-Shang . The Qiang people were often referred to as the Ta Qiang "many Qiang", they were used as agricultural workers, and used in Yin-Shang ancestral rites as sacrifice victims.


The Dravidians mated with Classical mongoloids. The Classical mongoloids conquered the Shang, and founded the Anyang-Shang Empire.

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The Yueh /Yue zhi or Dravido-Shang retreated into Yunnan. In Yunnan they founded several States. The principal States founded by these Blacks before the rise of the Qin Chinese Empire were the States of Yue-Wu and Ba-Shu.
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Yunnan Bronze

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The Yue-Wu state was part of the ‘geometric impressed pottey culture of South China. The Yue-Wu culture extended from the South China Sea to Taiwan. Yue-Wu was conquered by the Chinese King Weiwang of the Chu State.

Ba-Shu was a Black state established in the southwestern part of Sichuen and the Dian state of Yunnan. It appears that Ba-Shu was state founded by the Anu or Pygmy people. They were later joined by Mande and Dravidian speakers from Xia and Shang.


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The diversity of ethnic groups in Ba-Shu is made evident in the Buckle ornament with a ritual scene from Lijishan in Jiangchuan, China. The people of Ba-Shu were referred to as the southern Man. They represent the ancestors of the Baiman, Puman and Wuman.

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The Ba state was centered in the area of Chengdu, Sihcuan. The Shu state was separated from the Central plains by Qin and Ba. They were known as great seamen .

The Ba-Shu made ordinary earthen pit graves and boat coffins. They worked in bronze and had their own writing system. The artifacts from Dapona resemble the bronze from Lake Dian, a centre of the Dong-son culture.

After the Black states of Yue, Ba and Shu were defeated by Qin, the Yueh people fled to the southwest and into Annam. During the Han Dynasty the fragmented Yueh states and people were incorporated in the Han Empire.

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The Yueh (Dravido-Shang), who were not incorporated in the Han Empire. began to migrate southward into Southeast Asia. By this time the major power in Southeast Asia, were the Naga kings from Ethiopia.

The Han/Mongolians began to migrate out of the Tian Shan mountains and took control of Anyang-Shang. This forced the classical Mongoloid people to migrate into Indonesia.

Other classical mongoloids began to migrate into Southeast Asia and onto the Islands as they fled East Asia (China). The Classical mongoloids and the megalithic Kushites are probably the ancestors of the Polynesians.

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Sunday, March 12, 2017

The Native Americans Haplogroup D4 was Originally Haplogroup M1



The D haplogroup is nothing more than a African M clade. The sub-clade D4, is the Asian name for the M1 haplogroup.

Haplotypes with HVSI transitions defining 16129-16223-16249-16278-16311-16362; and 16129-16223-16234-16249-16211-16362 have been found in Thailand and among the Han Chinese (Fucharoen et al, 2001; Yao et al, 2002) and these were originally thought to be members of Haplogroup M1

Haplogroup M was a common Paleoamerican haplogroup. Paleoamericans carried haplogroup M. the 5000 year old skeletons from China Lake, British Columbia carried the M haplogroup (Malhi et al., 2007). This was confirmed by Malhi et al (2007), who found that the skeletons belong to haplogroup M, exhibiting the AluI site gain at np 10397. He was unable to match the China Lake skeletons’ mtDNA to haplogroup C, D, or sub-haplogroup M7, M8, or M9.

Although, these haplogroups are assigned an Asian origin Africans also carry these M subclades including , for example, haplogroups A and M7. Some Native American present Sub-Saharan African admixture. The Mande speakers carry mtDNA haplogroup A, which is common among Mexicans namely the Mixe and Mixtecs . In addition to the Mande speaking people of West Africa, Southeast Africa Africans also carry mtDNA A.

Naia of Mexico was D1 and Anzick child was also D4. Most contemporary Native Americans carry mtDNA that belongs to the M macrohaplogroup, namely A and B.

The D haplogroup , is the name for M1, in Asia (Fucharoen et al, 2001; Yao et al, 2002). Haplotypes with HVSI transitions defining 16129-16223-16249-16278-16311-16362; and 16129-16223-16234-16249-16211-16362 have been found in Thailand and among the Han Chinese (Fucharoen et al, 2001; Yao et al, 2002) and these were originally thought to be members of Haplogroup M1. 

When the Yao et al, and Fucharoen et al, articles were published the combination of mutations within polymorphic sites were not called haplogroup M1, or D(4). The D(4) designation came later when the "experts" made East Asian M clade into D, and renamed East Asian M1 into D4. This was much the same way researchers renamed African R1, V88.

However, on the basis of currently available FGS sequences, carriers of these markers are now labled D4a branch of Haplogroup D . Given the transitions in haplogroup D, it is the most widespread branch of M1 in East Asia (Fucharoen et al, 2001; Yao et al, 2002).

The transitions 16129,16189,16249 and 16311 are known to be recurrent in various branches of Haplogroup M, especially M1 and D4. Due to these transitions we can argue that Native Americans carrying D, are carrying African haplogroup M, especially M1 in the case of haplogroup D4.

References:

Fucharoen G, Fucharoen S, Horai S.(2001). Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in Thailand. J Hum Genet , 46:115-125.

Malhi , R. et al. (2006) Mitochondrial haplogroup M discovered in prehistoric North Am J Arch Scien 34 (2007), http://public.wsu.edu/~bmkemp/publications/pubs/Malhi_et_al_2007.pdf ; https://www.researchgate.net/publication/222693166_Haplogroup_M_discovered_in_prehistoric_North_America

Yao YG, Kong QP, Bandelt HJ, Kivisild T, Zhang YP.(2002). Phylogeographic differentiation of mitochondrial DNA in Han chinese. Am J Hum Genet , 70:635-651.

Sunday, March 5, 2017

Afrocentric Social Science Revolutions that Changed the Africalogical World View




Considerable progress has been made in the africalogical research of ancient history (DuBois, 1965, 1970; Diop, 1974,1991; Winters 1981\1982, 1991, 1994), classical studies (Parker, 1917, 1918) and the role of Blacks in ancient Indo-China and China (Winters, 1985) over the past 90 years. Marcus Garvey (1966) and DuBois (1965,1970) had a tremendous influence in the study of ancient Black history. 

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Marcus Garvey with the founding of the UNIA attracted many africalogical researchers to his organization. Some of these researchers wrote articles for the Negro World newspaper. These scholars formed the foundation for the africalogical scientific community including C.G Woodson, J. A. Rogers, William Ferris, George W. Parker and Arthur A. Schomberg.

In addition to members of the UNIA playing a prominent role in the precision of prediction of the africalogical paradigm we find that afrocentric researchers belonging to the Hamitic League of the World (HLW), also contributed greatly to the enhancement of the "Ancient Model" and the ASAH paradigms at the turn of the 20th century. John Albert Williams founded the HLW. Two its most prominent members include G. W. Parker (1917,1918) and A.A. Schomberg (1925).
G.W. Parker greatly expanded the ASAH paradigm for classical study by providing a focused study of the role of blacks in Greece. Parker (1917) identified these ancient Afro-Greeks as Pelasgians. He also used linguistics to illustrate that the names of many Greek heroes betrayed there African, not Indo-European origin. In addition, Parker gave us the most detailed discussion of Blacks in India up to his time (Parker, 1918).

The second major confirmation for the "Ancient Model" of history was made by DuBois (1965,1970). In the Negro published in 1915, DuBois explained the African presence in Egypt and ancient Kush and a comprehensive analysis of the West African empires.

W.E.B. DuBois (1924) also firmly placed the presence of Blacks in America as a legitimate research area for africalogical researchers. In The Gift of Black Folks, discussed the Black presence in ancient America, including European references to Pre-Columbian Blacks, and the influence of Africans on the Amerindian religions (DuBois,1924). The confirmation of this paradigm was made by ( Clegg, 1975; Lawrence, 1962; Thompson, 1975; Winters, 1981\1982)

In The World and Africa, DuBois (1965) provides a full explanation of the role of Blacks in the early world. He explains the history of Blacks in China and India (pp.176-200); Blacks in Europe(the Pre-Indo-European Greeks and during the Dark Age of Greece), and Asia Minor (pp. 115-127), and the Egyptian foundation of Grecian thought (pp. 125-126).

The major revolution in the ASAH was the research of Diop (1974, 1991). Diop, a Senegalese expert on Egyptian and African history made important contributions to the ASAH paradigms, including:

1) clarification of the African role in Egypt;

2) proved positively that the West African people formerly lived in close proximity to the Egyptians who were in many cases their ancestors;

3) made Mdu Neter the Egyptian language the classical language for ancient africalogical research; and

4) developed the genetic model as the major paradigm in the ASAH (Diop, 1991).

In general, Diop (1974, 1991) caused an africalogical social scientific revolution because he was able to prove that Egypt was the archetypical civilization for many West Africans. This was an important discovery because almost all of the slaves that were sold in the United States had originally came from West Africa. Verification of the Egyptian origin of West Africans provided African Americans with relationship to the ancient Egyptians.
Moreover, Diop's use of linguistics, and anthropological evidence to confirm the African origin of Egypt eliminated the need for africalogical researchers to use the classical writers to prove the African origin of Egypt (Diop, 1977, 1978, 1981, 1986, 1987, 1988). This finding by Diop has led africalogical researchers to seek a better understanding of African philosophy through an interpretation of Egyptian philosophy. Moreover, africalogical researchers have also began the reconstruction of the Paleo-African language used by Blacks in prehistoric times (Anselin, 1982, 1982b, 1989; Winters, 1994) so that we will know more about the culture and civilization of the Proto-Africans.

The last major confirmation of the ASAH paradigms was made by Clyde Ahmad Winters (1977, 1979, 1981, 1983a, 1983c, 1983d, 1984, 1985) when he expanded our understanding of the role of Blacks\Africans in Indo-China, India and China; and the ancient literacy of Blacks (1979, 1983d, 1985c, 1986b). The major work of Dr. Winters isAfrocentrism: Myth or Science . 

To conduct Afrocentric historical and anthropological research Dr. Winters uses the genetic model of historical research. Dr. Winters outlines these methods in his article “ Ancient Afrocentric History and the Genetic Model”, in Egypt and Greece, edited by Molefi Kete Asante and Ama Mazama
.

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C. Anta Diop is the founder of modern Afrocentricism . Diop (1974,1991) laid the foundations for the Afrocentric idea in education. Diop (1974, 1991) has argued that the genetic model can be used to explain the analogy between ancient African civilizations. There are three components in the genetic model: 1) common physical type, 2) common cultural patterns and 3) genetically related languages (Winters 1989a). Diop over the years has brought to bear all three of these components in his illumination of Kemetic civilization (Diop 1974,1977,1978,1991). Dr. Winters took these components of the genetic model to explore the history of Black and African civilizations around the world.

Gates, like most Afro-Americans in the Academe are afraid to present an Afrocentric view of African and Black history for fear of losing their jobs or being ostracized by white colleagues.

Many Eurocentrist believe that African-Americans should only write about slavery and leave the writing of ancient history to more "qualified" scholars. Moitt (l989) observed that:"The limitation has come about of the bias in historiography. The central problem is that historians have made plantation slavery and its effects in the Americas their sole preoccupation. And they have persuaded their students to do likewise. The damage this has done is incalculable. Blacks viewed their history and, by extension that of Africa in terms of slavery".(p.358) This is why Gates concentrates in the Great Empires of Africa, of civilizations influenced or recognized by Europeans, instead of using the archaeological evidence to influence his review of African history.

Moitt (l989) believes that this desire to deny blacks a role in ancient history is the root cause of white opposition to Diop. He wrote that: "All of this raises the question of historical methodology and goes to the heart of the matter of Diop's isolation....To what must we attribute this negation of Diop? The negation goes beyond the artificial division of the African continent at the Sahara desert and hinges on Diop's ideas the most contentious of which is that the ancient Egyptians were Blacks. In this respect, the negation is not of Diop alone, but formation, Bantu migration, Islam and the slave trade are seen as major problems in African history, the debate over Egypt is stifled" (Moitt 1989,p.358).

Dr. Winters using linguistic, anthropological and historical evidence, he proved that the earliest cultures of China and Indo-China were founded by Blacks from West Africa and modern Ethiopia (Winters, 1979, 1983d, 1985c, 1986b). The Black Civilizations of Asia are also discussed in this book The Ancient Black Civilizations of Asia.
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Winters also made it clear that the earliest Japanese were Blacks and that Japanese is related to Mande/African Languages (Winters, 1979, 1981, 1983a, 1983c, 1984). In addition he was able to prove that the founders of Xia and Shang were of African and Dravidian origin (1983c,1985c).

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Using the findings of Wiener in regards to the writing of the Olmecs Winters discovered that the Blacks from West Africa left numerous inscriptions written in the Manding language (Winters, 1977, 1979, 1983a, 1985b) . Dr. Winters explains the Olmec-Mande connections in [b]Atlantis in Mexico
 and African Empires in Ancient America

Winters later discovered that due to the cognition between the Mande writing and ancient scripts used by the Minoans and Indus Valley he could read the Indus Valley Writing and the Linear A inscriptions (1985b). Dr. Winters has written a detailed grammar and dictionary of the Indus Valley Writing and the Mande origin of the Minoan Linear A .

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This africalogical research by Winters (1981/1982, 1983b, 1983d, 1989a, 1991, 1994) made it clear that the first civilizations in Indo-China and China were founded by Blacks. He has also proved the lie to Hume's (1875) claim that Blacks have "No literacy" and "No letters". 

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Today genetics research is used to support population migrations. Dr. Winters has began to publish numerous articles on on the genetic history of Black and African people illustrating the reality that haplogroups M and y-Chromosome R are  of African origin..

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