Sunday, April 8, 2018

Inscriptions on Sphinx

Curtis Penn posted an interesting picture of several signs under the ear of the Sphinx on the Ta-Seti Facebook Group.. The signs are interesting because they are written in ancient Mande script.

 This ancient Mande script is called Libyco-Berber, but the signs are read using the Malinke Bambara language.The Libyco-Berber, Minoan, Proto-Sumerian writing system is based on Thinite script.

 The Berber writing is an alphabet. The signs under the ear of the Sphinx reads I yu po pe. In translation they read "Thou pure tomb on the flat lands." 

This inscription is interesting because we find pyramid(s) on the flat lands behind the Sphinx. This is a fantastic discovery by Curtis Penn.

Monday, April 2, 2018

The Hyksos were Kushites not Asians II

Most researchers accept the contemporary meaning of Gardiner's N25 symbol as "Rulers of foreign lands" not Kush”. In reality, Heqa ḫ3st probably means “Ruler of the Kushites”.

Researchers have made it clear that the Hyksos included many different nationalities. The Hyksos according to John Bright (2000, p.60 ); and Robert Drews (1997, p.254 ) included Hurrians and Hattians, in addition to Canaanites. This means that the name Aamw, was a generic name for ‘Asians’, and did not denote a specific Asian tribe.
The Hyksos were called heqa ḫ3st (khasut), not Habiru or Shepherd Kings. The Hyksos did not only speak Semitic languages.
The Hyksos ruled from 1650-1550. The New Kingdom lasted from 1549-1292. During the New Kingdom Egyptians used the name Aamw, as a generic name for the Asian, the term : Habiru, was ethnonym for one of the Asian tribes. It is clear that if the Habiru and Heqa Khasut were the same people, they would have had the same name given the fact the New Kingdom, began at the end of the Heqa Khasut Dynasty.

During the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt (2563-2423), namely during the reign of Sahure there is mention of the Tehenu people. Sahure referred to the Tehenu leader “Hati Tehenu” . These Hatiu, correspond to the Hatti speaking people of Anatolia. The Hatti/Hurrian people often referred to themselves as Kashkas or Kaskas.
This means that During the Old Kingdom the term heqa khasut, did not mean "ruler(s) of the foreign countries", as assumed by most Egyptologist. The term meaning of heqa khasut, was really "ruler(s) of the Kushites". If heqa khasut, meant "ruler(s) of the foreign countries", it would have been applied to every foreign country, but foreign kings were usually referred to as wr ‘King’, instead of heqa which was reserved for Egyptian rulers as noted by Camille DiBiase Dyson (2013). The Hyksos were rulers of Egypt during the 12th -15th Dynasties The title of these kings was Heqa Khasut . According to Fraser (1900) and Petrie Heqa Khasut was an exclusive title for the Hyksos Kings.

It does not matter if Kamose called the Hyksos Aamw, the Hyksos rulers referred to themselves as Heqa "ruler", i.e. Heqa Khasut, "Ruler of the Khasut/Kushites. In the Egyptian text from Avaris Kings like Apophis, made it clear that they were , "Rulers of Kushites.
Egyptian Khas corresponds to Kashkas or Kaska, the name for the Hattians. The Egyptian term ḫ3st (Khasut} has three different elements the ethononym Khas: Kas(ka)/Kush. Plus, the /-u/ which and the Egyptian plural marker, while the Egyptian /-t/ was a suffix that signified 'land, people'.

There are Egyptian text where the Hyksos called themselves ḫ3st = Kushite. The Egyptian textual evidence the Hyksos called themselves Heqa ḫ3st . In the Turin Royal Canon where the Hyksos were styled : heqa khasut. During the New Kingdom, the Kushites were called Kash, the same name the Hattians (Hyksos) called themselves: i.e., Kashka.
The first four rulers of the Hyksos called themselves heqa khasut on their seals and scarabs, the stela of Ka and a monumental doorjamb from Avaris. This is primary contemporaneous AEL literature epigraphic documentation evidence indicating that they called themselves Khas.

Fraser (1900) and Newberry (1906) have published many of the Hyksos scarabs. Thes scarabs often begin with the title Heqa ḫ3st.
Kim Ryholt (1997) believes that the title Heqa Khasut was used by Egyptian Pharoahs up to the 15th Dynasty. Ryholt believes that Pharoah Semqen, who used the title Heqa Khasut on one of his scarabs belonged to the 15th Dynasty

Hyksos Kings were proud of their Kushite origin. in the Hyksos seals, the Kings wrote their names followed by the "Heqa Khasut", i.e. “King of the Kushites”. These sealings are primary contemporaneous AEL literature documentation ,indicating that the Hyksos used this name to illustrate their Kushite ancestry and relationship to the Nubian Kushites. See; A History of Ancient Egypt by Marc Van De Mieroop.

Hyksos Kings were proud of their Kushite origin. in the Hyksos seals, the Kings wrote their names followed by the "Heqa Khasut", i.e. “King of the Kushites”. These sealings are primary
contemporaneous AEL literature documentation, indicating that the Hyksos used this name to illustrate their Kushite ancestry and relationship to the Nubian Kushites. See; A History of Ancient Egypt by Marc Van De Mieroop.
The meaning of ḫ3st, has to be Kush, because why would Hyksos kings refer to themselves as ‘foreign kings’, when they were native to the land they ruled.

In summary meaning of ḫ3st (Khas) is Kushite). My interpretation of N25 ḫ3st, is supported by the use of the term ḫ3st, on the Hyksos sealings and inscriptions generally.
Bright, John, A History of Israel. Westminster John Knox Press , 2000.
Drews, Robert , The Coming of the Greeks: Indo-European Conquests in the Aegean and the Near East, Princeton University Press , 1994.
Dyson, Camille DiBiase Foreigners and Egyptians in the Late Egyptian Stories, Boston,2013.
Fraser, G.W. , A catalogue of scarabs belonging to George Fraser (cat. no. 179). London, Bernard Quaritch, 1900.
Newberry, Percy E. , Scarabs : An Introduction to the Study of Egyptian Seals and Signet Rings (1906) Retrieved 4/2/2018 at .
Petrie, Sir William Matthew Flinders , Egypt and Israel, London : Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1911,
Ryholt, K.S.B. : The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c.1800–1550 BC, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997

Saturday, March 24, 2018

The Structure of the Africalogical Social Sciences



In this post we examine the structure of the africalogical ancient history scientific methods, paradigms and heroes. We also explain and discuss the major empirical generalizations associated with the africalogical study of ancient history and the "Ancient Model" and how they predicted the immense role Africans played in not only in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia and Greece, but also the rise of civilization in ancient China and the Americas.

The African -American is a product of his cultural and historical experience in the United States and the legacy of his African heritage. This cultural and historical dichotomy has greatly influenced the africalogical study of early history.
Due to the African heritage of African Americans, scholars from this group have used africalogy to study their history for almost two hundred years. Africalogy is the "afrocentric study of phenomena, events, ideas and personalities related to Africa" (Asante, 1990, 4). The "africalogical enterprise" include any geographical region where Africans exist today or formerly inhabited in ancient times.
In the africalogical social sciences, researchers look at the history and society of African people from an African centered or afrocentric perspective. The Afrocentrist connects Africans in America and elsewhere to thousands of years of history and civilization.
The Afrocentric study of early history (ASEH) is a mature science . Ancient afrocentric historical studies is a human science which seeks to explain historical, social and cultural experiences of Black\African people in ancient times.
The role of mature Afrocentric human\social science research is to detail the "Ancient Model" of history (Winters, 1994; Bernal, 1987, 1991). It is the "Ancient Model" of history which provides the essential directions and map-making of the africalogical study of early history. Kuhn (1996) noted that:
Normal science consists in the actualization of that
promise, an actualization achieved by extending the knowledge of those facts that the paradigm displays as particularly revealing, by increasing the extent of the match between those facts and the paradigm's predictions, and by further articulation of the paradigm itself (p.24).

The "Ancient Model" of history practiced by Afrocentric researchers of history is based on the classical literature and the Old Testament. The classical scholars: Herodutus, Homer and Strabo made it clear that Egypt and civilizations in Europe and Asia were founded by Black\African people.
Herodutus made it clear from his comparison of the black Colchis and Egyptians that both of these peoples were ethnically Black Africans (Rawlinson, 1928, 88). Herodutus also made it clear that the Egyptians founded colonies in Greece (Rawlinson, 1928).
Strabo in his Geography (Book 1, Chap.3, par.10), inspite of his chauvisim maintained that "Egyptians settled Ethiopia and Colchis". In addition, Diodorus of Sicily wrote that:
The Ethiopians say that the Egyptians are one of their colonies which was brought in[to] Egypt by Osiris. They even allege that this country was originally under water....(Diop, 1974, 1-2).
In addition to the works of Homer, Diodorus and Herodutus, other classical writers made it clear that the Egyptians (Graves, 1980, 27-30) and Libyans (Graves, 1980, 31-35, 44-45) settled Greece and parts of the Aegean.
The Old Testament literature also implied that the early civilizations of the world were all founded by Black\Africans. In the Book of Genesis (x, 6-16) we discover that Black people, the children of Ham, founded civilization in Egypt, Kush, Phoenicia, and Mesopotamia.
As a result of the "Ancient Model" developed by the classical and Biblical writers we find that Blacks were early civilizers of the world. The paradigm or empirical generalization for the "Ancient Model" of ancient history stated simply is:Egypt, Ethiopia, Greece and Mesopotamia was first inhabited and civilized by Blacks\Africans in early times.

Moreover, the archaeological evidence makes it clear that the ancient people of Egypt, Greece and Mesopotamia possessed a highly developed science. They also possessed writing: Libyco-Berber (or the Manding writing), Proto-Sumerian/ Proto-Elamite writing, Egyptian hieroglyphics and demotic, and the cuneiform writing of the Sumerians, Elamites and Akkadians/Babylonians (Winters, 1985a).
This model of history was normal social science until the beginning of the Atlantic Slave trade. During the Atlantic Slave trade, Africans were sold into bondage in Europe and of Americas. To justify this inhuman, vile and mean trade in human beings European philosophers in the 18th century created and "Aryan Model" of history to explain their domination of the Amerindians , and African slaves in the Western Hemisphere.
The "Aryan Model" of history, contrary to the "Ancient Model" of the classical and Biblical writers, maintains that Greek civilization was founded by Indo-European speaking Greeks, and that each ancient civilization was founded autonomously by the people who presently live in modern Asia, Europe and Egypt.
A "typical" example of the proponents the "Aryan Model"is David Hume. The Scottish philosopher David Hume (1875) attempted to prove the inferiority of African Americans, and Blacks in general in 1753, when he observed that there was a "lack of learning among them" (Vol. 1, 252). In other words, the alleged "universal illiteracy" among African slaves was evidence of their inferiority. In addition, Hume cited other alleged deficits of Blacks including 1) the absence of kingdoms among them; 2) the lack of literacy; 3) the dark complexion evidenced inferiority; and 4) the Blacks\Africans possessed no arts, no science and no letters (Hume, 1875).
Hume (1875) and later European philosophers abandoned the "Ancient Model" of history and created the "Aryan Model" due to their European centeredness. this Eurocentric view of history, culture and society placed Europe and Europeans at the center of social and cultural universal.
At the base of Eurocentricism is the doctrine of white supremacy. This ideological foundation aims to thwart the African-Americans search for manhood and self-assertion, when ever they encounter intensified prejudice by white Americans.
A major component of Eurocentricism is the notion of African-American intellectual inferiority. As a result, European scholars can write and research the history of any people on earth. African-Americans on the otherhand, are believed to lack the intellectual capacity to conduct research, let alone write history.
Due to the alleged intellectual inferiority of Africans it is believed that they are unsuited to write ancient history, international affairs, or archaeology. This may result from several factors especially racial bias and social position. These factors are important ,because of the fact that formerly persons writing on these topics usually came from well-to-do families that could provide them with the capital to undertake research activities abroad. This belief by many researchers has ghettoized many African American scholars and authors , to writing only about slavery, the slave trade and/or the cycle of poverty typified by life in the urban centers of the United States.
In the 19th century, many African American freemen knew how to read and write. They were also expert in Latin and Greek, and were intimately familiar with the classical and Old Testament literature. These African American scholars, contrary to many contemporary scholars began to conduct their own research and revive the "Ancient Model" of history in the 19th century and founded the africalogical study of ancient history (ASAH).
Philosophical Basis for the
Africalogical study of ancient history
There are four philosophical schools associated with the afrocentric study of ancient history: perennialist, essentialist, existentialist, and progressivist. The taxonomic system we use to classify the various afrocentric philosophical positions and related values affecting afrocentrism are modeled on philo-sophical developments associated with education.
We can use taxonomies of educational philosophies to discuss any proposed afrocentric curriculum because both education and philosophy are "cultural experiences". Moreover, because afrocentrism seeks to explain and delineate the story of African people, it clearly is a field of study which encompasses all aspects of the culture of Black and African people (Asante, 1990, 1991; Winters, 1994).
The perennialist afrocentrists study the great works. The adherents of this school include Martin Delaney (1978), Cornish and Russwurm (1827), Frederick Douglas (1966), and Edward Blyden (1869). These Afrocentrists see knowledge as truth, which is eternal.

The essentialist afrocentric school emphasize in their writing data that is well established through scientific research. Afrocentrists of this philosophical school include W. E. B. DuBois (1965, 1970), John Jackson (1974), C.A. Winters (1985, 1989, 1991, 1994) and Leo Hansberry (1981). They believe that as new research is published, it should be analyzed to discover how it relates to the ancient history of African and Black people to enrich our understanding of the past.

The existentialist afrocentrists believe that africalogical studies should thrive to teach African people to know more about themselves so we can have a better world. The afrocentric existentialists include J.A. Rogers, Anta Diop (1974, 1991), G.M. James (1954), Marcus Garvey (1966) and A.A. Schomburg (1979).
Dr. Winters has written extensively on the ancient history of the African diaspora. He has numerous sites on the web were explains the ancient history of African people. His major work is

  • Dr. Winters provides a detailed discussion of how to study Afrocentrism and provides an intimate and detailed study of the ancient Black civilizations outside Africa in Europe, Asia and the Americas.

    The final afrocentric philosophical school is the progressivist. The afrocentric school of progressivism believes that we should have knowledge of the process and futuristic focus on afrocentric studies. The major exponent of this frame of reference is Molefi K. Asante (1991).
    In regards to the afrocentric view that the Egyptians were Black Africans we must look to the afrocentric perennialists. The perennialists founded the afrocentric ancient history curriculum. The perennialist school is associated with Frederick Douglas (1966) and Martin Delaney (1978). These Afrocentrists writing in the 19th century placed the great works of the past center stage in the formulation of their afrocentric ancient history knowledge base.
    The perennialists postulated that you should use the Bible and the writings of the classical scholars who recognized the "Ancient Model" of history (i.e., Blacks played a major role in ancient history) in deciding on what to teach people about the ancient history of African Americans. The Old Testament provides annals of the ancient Empires of Africa and Mesopotamia.
    In the Old Testament the Blacks are recognized as the sons of Ham. According to the Old Testament narrative found in the Book of Genesis (10:6), the children of Ham, are alleged to be the founders of all the ancient civilizations including Kush (the Ta Seti, and C-Group cultures of Nubia and the Sudan; the Sumerians of Mesopotamia and the Elamites of Iran), Mizraim (the founder of the Egyptians), Phut (the civilizations of ancient Ethiopia/ South Arabia), and Canaan (the early Canaanites and Hatians of ancient Palestine). The Old Testament narrative and the classical literature was important to the perennialists because it already recognized the division of Black people of Africa into two groups: the Semitic (Canaan and Phut) speakers and Black African (Egypt, Sumer and Elam) speakers (Winters 1985, 1989, 1991).
    Africalogical Paradigms of ancient history
    As a result of the "Ancient Model" scientific efforts of africalogical ancient history researchers of the diverse philosophical schools discussed above is organized around two theoretical or empirical generalizations\paradigms. An empirical generalization is 'an isolated proposition summarizing observed uniformities of relationships between two or more variables" (Merton, 1957, 95), a "scientific law" is "a statement of invariance derivable from a theory" (Merton, 1957, 96).
    The two paradigms associated with ASAH developed by the perennialist afrocentric scholars are:
    (1) Black\African people are the children of Ham;
    (2) Blacks founded the first civilizations in Asia
    (Sumer, Babylon and Elam), Africa (Egypt, Ethiopia
    and Libya\ North Africa) and Europe (Greece and
    The normal scientific research in africalogical ancient historical studies is directed toward the articulation of those phenomena and theories supplied by the ASAH to deduce new paradigms.
    Due to the foundation of africalogical ancient research by the afrocentric perennialists, ASAH research is paradigm based. As a result, africalogical ancient historical fact-gathering, that is the historical, linguistic and anthropological data through which afrocentric scientists inform their colleagues ( and the public at large) is based on these paradigms.
    The theoretical paradigms of the ASAH provide africalogical researchers with the criterion for choosing the problems and solutions to social science phenomena including:
    (1) the design of research phenomena;
    (2) the maps or areas of research; and
    (3) the interpretation of research results.

    The paradigms for ASAH predicted four hypothesis that were unknown at the time the "Ancient Model" of history was developed, to guide the development of scientific knowledge for the africalogical study of early history. These propositions based on the "Ancient Model" are:
    (1) If Blacks founded civilization in Asia and Africa , they may have influenced civilization in the Americas.
    (2) If Blacks founded civilization in West Asia, Africa and Europe, archaeological data will support their earlier presence in these regions of the world.
    (3) If Blacks founded the first civilizations, they also invented writing and other elements of social and scientific technology.
    (4) If Blacks founded civilization they probably founded civilization throughout Asia and Europe.

    Given the two empirical paradigms and four predicted hypothesis related to the "Ancient Model", africalogical ancient history research should increase the precision of the application of afrocentric research methods and scope of research in this area so as to answer three questions in the mature afrocentric social science. Research in the afrocentric social sciences seeks to answer three classes of questions based on the ASAH paradigms:
    (1) the determination of significant ASAH facts;
    (2) the match of ASAH facts with theory; and
    (3) the articulation of ASAH theory.

    The normative function of the ASAH paradigms provides the afrocentric ancient history researchers with shared paradigms, or points of view that help define how s/he will research ancient history. These paradigms insure that africalogical researchers use the "Ancient Model" of research, as opposed to the "Aryan Model" of research to illuminate the early history of Black/African people.
    The Africalogical ancient history paradigms developed by Delany (1978), Douglas (1966), Edward Blyden (1869) and Cornish and Russwurm (1827) form the theoretical base for ASAH research. In normal afrocentric social science research new paradigms have to 1) be related to the older theories; and 2) they must be compatible with already established rules for research modeled by the afrocentric perennialists.
    The study of Africans in ancient America has been fruitful. Dr. Leo Wiener, in Africa and the Discovery of America was the first to recognize that the ancient civilizations of Mexico had been incluenced by Africans. He was especially sure that the Mande speaking people influenced the religion and civilization of the Aztec and Maya people; and that the writing on the Tuxtla statuette was written in the Mande writing system.
    Later Ivan van Sertima wrote an important book which highlighted the influence of Africans in Mexico. In They Came before Columbus, van Sertima discussed the African influence on the Olmec civilization, and the discovery of America by Abubakari, a ruler of the Mali empire in the 1300's A.D.
    Dr. Clyde Winters has written extensively on the African origins of the Olmec. He deciphered the Olmec language and since then he has published numerous websites where he discussed the Olmec Kings and their civilization. The most important work of Dr. Winters is
  • Atlantis in Mexico, in this book Dr. Winters provides a detailed account of the migration of the Mande speaking people from Africa to the Americas. He explains that they called themselves Xi (Shi) or Si people and provides an informative discussion of the Mexican traditions regarding the expansion of the Olmec from the Gulf Coast, to the Pacific coast of Mexico.
  • Atlantis in Mexico
  • will provide any researchers with a wealth of knowledge to understand the African origin of the Olmec. And the contributions of the Xi to the civilizations of Mexico.

    Verification in Ancient Africalogical Research
    Afrocentric social scientists use confirmation to verify the africalogical paradigm rather than falsification. Confirmatory knowledge is based on generalizing as a result of observation. Whereas confirmation is based on observation of observable facts, the aim of falsification is the rejection of an established theory.
    The afrocentric scientific community seeks to obtain from their research one of three outcomes 1) confirmed (or corroborated) predictions based on the ASAH paradigm; 2) mixed outcomes, or 3) disconfirmed predictions based on the "Ancient Model".
    New paradigms resulting from africalogical ancient history research must have internal and external validity. Internal validity is the logical relationship between "facts" and reality, while external validity needs "empirical studies" or test to support any hypothesis.
    After the end of slavery in the United States, the africalogical scientific community began to conduct research to support the work done by the perennialists. The heroes in the founding of the africalogical ancient social science were usually professionally trained at Eastern Universities such as Harvard and Yale. Although, afrocentric researchers received training at prestigious Universities their research was usually conducted outside of the "established" academy.
    Vehicles for Dissemination of Research
    Afrocentric researchers of the ASAH have presented the evidence to follow afrocentric science and the public in various ways. As mentioned earlier, afrocentric researchers have rarely been professionally affiliated with institutions of higher learning. As a result, the Dissemination of africalogical research has usually been presented in a public forum.
    Newspapers and magazines have been the major media africalogical researchers use to inform the public and their colleagues about the ancient history of African Americans. In the 19th century the Freedom Journal, and religious publications like the Methodist Quarterly Review, published articles on africalogical ancient history.
    In the early 20th century as more African Americans became literate, we see the founding of numerous organizations that brought afrocentric scientists together to discuss and teach ancient history from an afrocentric perspective including the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) founded by Marcus Garvey; and the Hamitic League of the World.
    The UNIA's Negro World, edited by William Ferres, published many afrocentric articles. During its lengthy period of publication many afrocentric social scientists wrote for this popular African American newspaper including Carter G. Woodson, J.A. Rogers and George W. Parker.
    Some afrocentric articles were also published in the Journal of Negro History (JNH). Carter G. Woodson founded not only JNH, but also the Negro History Bulletin, and Associated Publishers.
    Up until World War II, many African American newspapers carried stories about Blacks in ancient times. Some of the popular African American dailies which published afrocentric articles during this period were the Chicago Daily Defender, and Amsterdam News.
    In the 1970's we see a number of publications that included africalogical material among the articles they published. These seminal publications for archaelogical research in the 1970's include the Black WorldThe Black ScholarJournal of Black Studies (San Francisco State University), Journal of African CivilizationReturn to the Source (Chicago), and the black books bulletin (Chicago).
    Scholarly Language of the Afrocentric
    Scientific Community
    To study ancient afrocentric studies the africalogical researcher has had to become skilled in understanding and reading non-English languages. DuBois (1970) noted that: The time has not yet come for a complete history of the Negro peoples. Archaeological research in Africa has
    just begun, and many sources of information in Arabian,Portuguese, and other tongues are not fully at our command....(p.3).
    For the heroes of africalogical research such as Delany, Blyden, DuBois, Parker, Perry and Williams, a knowledge of Latin and \or Greek were a requirement for normal scientific study of the classical and Old Testament literature which served as the basis for the creation of the theoretical paradigms associated with ASAH.
    In addition to possessing a reading knowledge of these Eurocentric classical languages for Western thought, africalogical researchers have also had to have a knowledge of modern European languages. This has been necessary because of the fact that much of the research supporting the ASAH paradigms has usually been published in French and German. One of the reasons that many of the contemporary africalogical researchers interested in early history use outdated references in their work, is due to their ignorance of French and German.
    Proficiency in a language other than English, helped africalogical researchers conduct the normal africalogical social science. It was DuBois' (1965, 1970) and Hansberry's knowledge of German that allowed these afrocentrists to conduct research into the role of Blacks in Egypt and Ethiopia. J.A. Rogers mastered many languages including French and German to prove that Blacks inhabited almost every continent on the globe. Dr. C. A. Winters (1977,1981\1982, 1985, 1991, 1994) had to learn Arabic, Chinese, Malinke, Portuguese, Otomi, Mayan, Swahili, Tamil and Tokharian (Kushana) to conduct his africalogical studies of Blacks in Asia and the Americas.
    In the 1960's due to the rise of independence in the east African country of Tanzania, Swahili became a language used by africalogical scientists. Swahili terms were used to explain and define the phenomena associated with africalogy. This is one of the reasons that the terms used in the Kwanza ceremonies practiced by blacks are Swahili lexical items (Coleman, 1971).
    Swahili is still among africalogical researchers but today Egyptian is recognized as the classical language for africalogical research (Wimby, 1980). Diop (1974,1991) popularized the idea that Egyptian should be used as the classical language for the study of ancient africalogical language and historical studies. As a result, most of the africalogical researchers today concentrate on Egypt and use Egyptian terms to explain the culture and Proto-African language of Africa people (Carruthers, 1977,1980).

    The Africalogical Textbooks
    The foundation of any mature science is its articulation in an authoritive text (Kuhn, 1996, 136). The africalogical textbooks published by Hopkins (1905), Perry (1893) and Williams (1883) provided the vocabulary themes for further afrocentric social science research.
    The pedagogy for ancient africalogical research was well established by the end of the 19th century by African American researchers well versed in the classical languages and knowledge of Greek and Latin. Cornish and Russwurm (1827) in the Freedom Journal, were the first African Americans to discuss and explain the "Ancient Model" of history. These afrocentric social scientists used the classics to prove that the Blacks founded civilization in Egypt, Ethiopia, Babylon and Ninevah. Cornish and Russwurm (1827) made it clear that archaeological research supported the classical, or "Ancient Model" of history.
    Edward Blyden (1869) also used classical sources to discuss the ancient history of African people. In his work he not only discussed the evidence for Blacks in West Asia and Egypt, he also discussed the role of Blacks in ancient America (Blyden, 1869, 78).
    By 1883, africalogical researchers began to publish book on African American history. W. Williams (1883) wrote the first textbook on African American history. In the History of the Negro Race in America, Dr. Williams provided the schema for all future africalogical history text.
    Dr. Williams (1883) confirmed the classical traditions for Blacks founding civilization in both Africa (Egypt, Ethiopia) and West Asia. In addition, to confirming the "Ancient Model" of history, Dr. Williams (1883) also mentioned the presence of Blacks in Indo-China and the Malay Peninsula.
    A decade later R.L. Perry (1893) also presented evidence to confirm the classical traditions of Blacks founding Egypt, Greece and the Mesopotamian civilization. He also provided empirical evidence for the role of Blacks in Phoenicia, thus increasing the scope of the ASAH paradigms.
    Pauline E. Hopkins (1905) added further articulation of the ASAH paradigms of the application of these paradigms in understanding the role of Blacks in West Asia and Africa. Hopkins (1905) provided further confirmation of the role of Blacks in Southeast Asia, and expanded the scope of africalogical research to China (1905).
    This review of the 19th century africalogical social scientific research indicate confirmation of the "Ancient Model" for the early history of Blacks. We also see a movement away from self-published africalogical research, and publication of research, and the publication of research articles on afrocentric themes, to the publication of textbooks.
    It was in these books that the paradigms associated with the "Ancient Model" and ASAH were confirmed, and given reliability by empirical research. It was these texts which provided the pedagogic vehicles for the perpetuation of the africalogical normal social science.
    The afrocentric textbooks of Hopkins (1905), Perry (1893) and Williams (1883) proved the reliability and validity of the ASAH paradigms. The discussion in these text of contemporary scientific research findings proving the existence of ancient civilizations in Egypt, Nubia-Sudan (Kush), Mesopotamia, Palestine and North Africa lent congruency to the classical literature which pointed to the existence of these civilizations and these African origins ( i.e., the children of Ham= Khem =Kush?).
    Dr. Winters in
  • Afrocentrism: Myth or Science
  • , Has been able to update the literature regarding African civilizations in Asia, Europe and the Americas. This text provides the blueprint necessary for students to understand why the Afrocentric model of history continues to find support from the archaeological, linguistic and anthropological fields of study.
    The authors of the africalogical textbooks reported the latest archaeological and anthropological findings. The archaeological findings reported in these textbooks added precision to their analysis of the classical and Old Testament literature. This along with the discovery of artifacts on the ancient sites depicting Black\African people proved that the classical and Old Testament literature, as opposed to the "Aryan Model", objectively identified the Black\African role in ancient history. And finally, these textbooks confirmed that any examination of references in the classical literature to Blacks in Egypt, Kush, Mesopotamia and Greece\Crete exhibited constancy to the evidence recovered from archaeological excavations in the Middle East and the Aegean. They in turn disconfirmed the "Aryan Model", which proved to be a falsification of the authentic history of Blacks in early times.
    The creation of africalogical textbooks provided us with a number of facts revealing the nature of the afrocentric ancient history paradigms. They include a discussion of:
    1) the artifacts depicting Blacks found at ancient sites
    recovered through archaeological excavation;
    2) the confirmation of the validity of the classical and Old
    Testament references to Blacks as founders of civilization in Africa and Asia;
    3) the presence of isolated pockets of Blacks existing outside Africa; and
    4) that the contemporary Arab people in modern Egypt are
    not the descendants of the ancient Egyptians.
    The early africalogical textbooks also outlined the africalogical themes research should endeavor to study. A result, of the data collected by the africalogical ancient history research pioneers led to the development of three facts by the end of the 19th century, which needed to be solved by the afrocentric paradigms:
    (1) What is the exact relationship of ancient Egypt, to Blacks in other parts of Africa;
    (2) How and when did Blacks settle America, Asia and Europe;
    (3) What are the contributions of the Blacks to the rise, and cultural expression ancient Black\African civilizations;
    (4) Did Africans settle parts of America in ancient times.
    These paradigms provided the foundation for africalogical research in the 20th century.
    Afrocentric Social Science Revolutions that Changed the Africalogical World View
    Considerable progress has been made in the africalogical research of ancient history (DuBois, 1965, 1970; Diop, 1974,1991; Winters 1981\1982, 1991, 1994), classical studies (Parker, 1917, 1918) and the role of Blacks in ancient Indo-China and China (Winters, 1985) over the past 90 years. Marcus Garvey (1966) and DuBois (1965,1970) had a tremendous influence in the study of ancient Black history.
    Marcus Garvey with the founding of the UNIA attracted many africalogical researchers to his organization. Some of these researchers wrote articles for the Negro World newspaper. These scholars formed the foundation for the africalogical scientific community including C.G Woodson, J. A. Rogers, William Ferris, Gerge W. Parker and Arthur A. Schomberg.
    In addition to members of the UNIA playing a prominent role in the precision of prediction of the africalogical paradigm we find that afrocentric researchers belonging to the Hamitic League of the World (HLW), also contributed greatly to the enhancement of the "Ancient Model" and the ASAH paradigms at the turn of the 20th century. John Albert Williams founded the HLW. Two its most prominent members include G. W. Parker (1917,1918) and A.A. Schomberg (1925).
    G.W. Parker greatly expanded the ASAH paradigm for classical study by providing a focused study of the role of blacks in Greece. Parker (1917) identified these ancient Afro-Greeks as Pelasgians. He also used linguistics to illustrate that the names of many Greek heroes betrayed there African, not Indo-European origin. In addition, Parker gave us the most detailed discussion of Blacks in India up to his time (Parker, 1918).
    The second major confirmation for the "Ancient Model" of history was made by DuBois (1965,1970). In the Negro published in 1915, DuBois explained the African presence in Egypt and ancient Kush and a comprehensive analysis of the West African empires.
    W.E.B. DuBois (1924) also firmly placed the presence of Blacks in America as a legitimate research area for africalogical researchers. In The Gift of Black Folks, discussed the Black presence in ancient America, including European references to Pre-Columbian Blacks, and the influence of Africans on the Amerindian religions (DuBois,1924). The confirmation of this paradigm was made by ( Clegg, 1975; Lawrence, 1962; Thompson, 1975; Winters, 1981\1982)
    In The World and Africa, DuBois (1965) provides a full explanation of the role of Blacks in the early world. He explains the history of Blacks in China and India (pp.176-200); Blacks in Europe(the Pre-Indo-European Greeks and during the Dark Age of Greece), and Asia Minor (pp. 115-127), and the Egyptian foundation of Grecian thought (pp. 125-126).
    The major revolution in the ASAH was the research of Diop (1974, 1991). Diop, a Senegalese expert on Egyptian and African history made important contributions to the ASAH paradigms, including:
    1) clarification of the African role in Egypt;
    2) proved positively that the West African people formerly
    lived in close proximity to the Egyptians who were in many cases their ancestors;
    3) made Mdu Neter the Egyptian language the classical language for ancient africalogical research; and
    4) developed the genetic model as the major paradigm in
    in the ASAH (Diop, 1991).
    In general Diop (1974, 1991) caused an africalogical social scientific revolution because he was able to prove that Egypt was the archetypical civilization for many West Africans. This was an important discovery because almost all of the slaves that were sold in the United States had originally came from West Africa. Verification of the Egyptian origin of West Africans provided African Americans with relationship to the ancient Egyptians.
    Moreover, Diop's use of linguistics, and anthropological evidence to confirm the African origin of Egypt eliminated the need for africalogical researchers to use the classical writers to prove the African origin of Egypt (Diop, 1977, 1978, 1981, 1986, 1987, 1988). This finding by Diop has led africalogical researchers to seek a better understanding of African philosophy through an interpretation of Egyptian philosophy. Moreover, africalogical researchers have also began the reconstruction of the Paleo-African language used by Blacks in prehistoric times (Anselin, 1982, 1982b, 1989; Winters, 1994) so that we will know more about the culture and civilization of the Proto-Africans.
    The last major confirmation of the ASAH paradigms was made by Clyde Ahmad Winters (1977, 1979, 1981, 1983a, 1983c, 1983d, 1984,
    1985) when he expanded our understanding of the role of Blacks\Africans in Indo-China, India and China; and the ancient literacy of Blacks (1979, 1983d, 1985c, 1986b). Using linguistic, anthropological and historical evidence, he proved that the earliest cultures of China and Indo-China were founded by Blacks from West Africa and modern Ethiopia (Winters, 1979, 1983d, 1985c, 1986b).
    Winters also made it clear that the earliest Japanese were Blacks and that Japanese is related to African languages (Winters, 1979, 1981, 1983a, 1983c, 1984). In addition he was able to prove that the founders of Xia and Shang were of African and Dravidian origin (1983c,1985c).
    Using the findings of Wiener in regards to the writing of the Olmecs Winters discovered that the Blacks from West Africa left numerous inscriptions written in the Manding language (Winters, 1977, 1979, 1983a, 1985b) . Winters later discovered that due to the cognition between the Mande writing and ancient scripts used by the Minoans and Indus Valley he could read the Indus Valley Writing and the Linear A inscriptions (1985b).
    This africalogical research by Winters (1981/1982, 1983b, 1983d, 1989a, 1991, 1994) made it clear that the first civilizations in Indo-China and China were founded by Blacks. He has also proved the lie to Hume's (1875) claim that Blacks have "No literacy" and "No letters".
    In conclusion, the africalogical study of ancient history is an empirical area of social science research founded by africalogical perennialists in the 19th century. This review of the structure of scientific revolutions in the africalogical study of ancient history has illustrated how afrocentric researchers took the theoretical paradigms of the "Ancient Model" and through verifiable research were transformed into new observations and related new africalogical ancient history paradigms. For example, the evidence of Blacks in West Asia, led to the generalization that blacks may have also inhabited early China and Japan. These hypothesis formulated in the 19th century (Hopkins, 1905; Perry, 1893), were confirmed in the 2oth century (Winters, 1980, 1981c,1983c,1985c).
    The structure of africalogical social science over the past 100 years, signifies that afrocentric researchers have used the "Ancient Model" of history to deduce new paradigms supporting the African origin of ancient civilizations around the world. These new paradigms have proved to be compatible with the "Ancient Model" that the africalogical perennialists used to make their first study of the ancient history of African Americans. Moreover, the ability of Diop (1991) and Parker (1917) to expand our knowledge of the Blacks in ancient Crete and Greece are clear indications of how scientific novelty in africalogical research often emerge simultaneously from different areas.
    Anselin, A. (1982). Le mythe d' Europe. Paris: Editions Anthropos.
    _______.(1982b). "Zeus, Ethiopien Minos Tamoul", Carbet Revue
    Martinique de Sciences Humaines,no. 2:31-50.
    _______.(1989). "Le Lecon Dravidienne",Carbet Revue Martinique
    de Sciences Humaines, no.9:7-58.
    Asante,M.A. (July-August, 1996). "Ancient Truths", Emerge , 66-70.
    Asante,M.K. (1990) Kemet,Afrocentricity,and Knowledge. Trenton
    ,NJ:Africa World Press.
    _________ (1991). "The Afrocentric idea in Education",Journal
    of Negro Education,60(2):170-180.
    __________.(December 1991/January 1992). "Afrocentric Curri-
    culum".Educational Leadership, pp.28-31.
    Bernal, M. (1996, Spring). The Afrocentric interpretation of history: Bernal replies to Lefkowitz. Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 86-95.
    Bernal,M. (1987). Black Athena. New York: Free Association Press. Volume 1.
    ________. (1991). Black Athena. New York: Free Association Press. Volume 2.
    Blyden, E.W. ( January, 1869). The Negro in ancient history.
    Methodist Quarterly Review, 71-93.
    Blyden, E.W. (1887). Christianity, Islam and the Negro Race. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    _____________. (1890). The African Problem and the method for
    its solution. Washington, D.C.: Gibson Brothers.
    _______________.(1905). West Africa before Europe. London:
    C.M. Phillips.
    Clegg, L.H. (1975). Who were the first Americans? The Black
    Scholar, 7(1), 32-41.
    Coleman, B.E. (1971). A history of Swahili, The Black Scholar,
    2 (6), 13-25.
    Cornish, S. & Russwurm, J.B. (1827). European colonies in America, Freedom Journal, 1.
    Carruthers, J. (1977). Writing for Eternity, black book bulletin,
    5 (2), 32-35.
    Carruthers, J. (1980). Reflections on the history of afrocentric
    worldview, black book bulletin, 7(1), 4-13, 25.
    Delany, M.R. (1978). The origin of races and color. Baltimore, M.D.: Black Classic Press.
    Diop,C.A. (1974). The African Origin of Civilization. (ed. & Trans) by Mercer Cook, Westport:Lawrence Hill & Company.
    _________.(1977). Parente genetique de l'Egyptien Pharaonique et
    des Languaes Negro-Africaines. Dakar: IFAN ,Les Nouvelles
    Editions Africaines.
    __________.(1978) The Cultural Unity of Black Africa. Chicago: Third World Press.
    __________. (1981). A Methodology for the study of migration.
    UNESCO (Ed.), African Ethnonyms and Toponyms, (pp.87-110).
    Paris: UNESCO.
    ___________.(1986). "Formation of the Berber Branch". In Libya
    Antiqua. (ed.) by Unesco,(Paris: UNESCO) pp.69-73.
    ____________.(1987). Precolonial Black Africa. (trans. ) by
    Harold Salemson, Westport: Lawrence Hill & Company.
    ____________.(1988). Nouvelles recherches sur l'Egyptien ancient
    et les langues Negro-Africaines Modernes. Paris: Presence
    _____________(1991). Civilization or Barbarism: An Authentic Anthropology. (trans.) by Yaa-Lengi Meema Ngemi and (ed.) by
    H.J. Salemson and Marjoliiw de Jager, Westport:Lawrence
    Hill and Company.
    Douglas, F. (1966). The claims of the Negro ethnologically considered. In H. Brotz (Ed.), Negro social and political
    thought (pp. 226-244). New York: Basic Books, Inc., Pub.
    DuBois, W.E.B. (1924). The Gift of Black Folks. Boston.
    DuBois, W.E.B. (1970). The Negro. New York: Oxford University
    DuBois, W.E.B. (1965). The world and Africa. New York :
    International Publishers Co., Inc.
    Ferris, W.H. (1913). The African abroad. 2 vols. New Haven,CT
    :Tuttle, Morehouse and Taylor.
    Garvey, M. (1966). Who and What is a Negro. In H. Brotz (Ed.), Negro social and political thought (pp. 560-562).New York: Basic Books, Inc. Publishers.
    Graves, Robert. (1980). The Greek Myths. Middlesex:Peguin Books
    Ltd. 2 volumes.
    Hansberry, L.H. (1981). Africa and Africans: As seen by classical
    writers (Vol. 2). Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press.
    Hopkins, P.E. (1905). A Primer of Facts pertaining to the early greatness of the african race and the possibility of restoration by its descendants-with epilogue. Cambridge: P.E. Hopkins & Com.
    Hume, D. (1875). Essays: Moral political and literary. T.H. Green
    and T.H. Grose. 2 Vols. London.
    Jackson, J. (1974). Introduction to African civilization.
    Secaucus, N.J.: Citadel Press.
    James, G.M. (1954). Stolen legacy. New York: Philosophical Library.
    Kuhn, T.S. (1996). The structure of scientific revolution.
    Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Lacouperie, Terrien de. (1891). The black heads of Babylonia and ancient China, The Babylonian and Oriental Record5 (11), 233-246.
    Lawrence, H.G. (1962). African explorers of the New World,
    The Crisis, 321-332.
    Merton, R.K. (1957). Social theory aand social structure.
    Glencoe, Ill. : The Free Press.
    Moitt,B. (1989). "Chiekh Anta Diop and the African Diaspora:
    Historical Continuity and Socio-Cultural Symbolism".
    Presence Africaine, no. 149-150:347-360.
    Parker,G.W. (1917) . "The African Origin of Grecian Civilization
    ".Journal of Negro History, 2(3):334-344.
    ___________. (1981). The Children of the Sun. Baltimore,Md.:
    Black Classic Press.
    Perry, R.L. (1893). The Cushite. Brooklyn: The Literary Union.
    Rawlinson, George. (1928).The History of Herodutus. New York
    : Tudor.
    Schomburg, A.A. (March, 1925).The Negro digs up his past.
    Survey Graphic, 670-672.
    Schomburg, A.A. (1979). Racial integrity. Baltimore, M.D.:
    Black Classic Press.
    Thompson, Jr. A.A. (1975). Pre-Columbian [African] presence
    in the Western Hemisphere,Negro History Bulletin, 38 (7), 452-456.
    Williams, G.W. (1869). History of the Negro Race in America. New York: G.P. Putnam.
    Wimby, D. (1980). The Greco-Roman Tradition concerning Ethiopia and Egypt, black books bulletin, 7(1), 14-19, 25.
    Winters, C.A. (1977). The influence of the Mande scripts on ancient American writing systems", Bulletin l'de IFAN, T39, serie B, no. 2 (1977), pp.941-967.
    Winters, C.A. (1979). Manding Scripts in the New World", Journal of African Civilizations, l(1), 80-97.
    Winters,C.A. (December 1981/ January 1982). Mexico's Black Heritage. The Black Collegian, 76-84.
    Winters, C.A. (1983a). "The Ancient Manding Script". In Blacks
    in Science:Ancient and Modern. (ed.) by Ivan van Sertima, (New Brunswick: Transaction Books) pp.208-215.
    __________. (1983b). "Les Fondateurs de la Grece venaient d'Afrique en passant par la Crete". Afrique Histoire (Dakar), no.8:13-18.
    _________. (1983c) "Famous Black Greeks Important in the development of Greek Culture". Return to the Source,2(1):8.
    ________.(1983d). "Blacks in Ancient China, Part 1, The Founders
    of Xia and Shang", Journal of Black Studies 1 (2), 8-13.
    ________. (1984a). "Blacks in Europe before the Europeans".
    Return to the Source, 3(1):26-33.
    Winters, C.A. (1984b). Blacks in Ancient America, Colorlines, 3(2), 27-28.
    Winters, C.A. (1984c). Africans found first American Civilization , African Monitor, l , pp.16-18.
    _________.(1985a). "The Indus Valley Writing and related
    Scripts of the 3rd Millennium BC". India Past and
    Present, 2(1):13-19.
    __________. (1985b). "The Proto-Culture of the Dravidians,
    Manding and Sumerians". Tamil Civilization,3(1):1-9.
    __________. (1985c). "The Far Eastern Origin of the Tamils",
    Journal of Tamil Studies , no.27, pp.65-92.
    __________.(1986). The Migration Routes of the Proto-Mande.
    The Mankind Quarterly,27 (1), 77-96.
    _________.(1986b). Dravidian Settlements in Ancient Polynesia.
    India Past and Present3 (2), 225-241.
    __________. (1988). "Common African and Dravidian Place Name
    Elements". South Asian Anthropologist, 9(1):33-36.
    __________. (1989a). "Tamil, Sumerian, Manding and the Genetic
    Model". International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics,18(1):98-127.
    __________. (1989b). "Review of Dr. Asko Parpola's 'The Coming of the Aryans'",International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, 18(2):98-127.
    __________. (1990). "The Dravido-Harappan Colonization of Central Asia". Central Asiatic Journal, 34(1/2):120-144.
    ___________. (1991). "The Proto-Sahara". The Dravidian Encyclopaedia, (Trivandrum: International School of Dravidian Linguistics) pp.553-556. Volume l.
    ----------.(1994). Afrocentrism: A valid frame of reference, Journal of Black Studies25 (2), 170-190.
    _________.(1994b). The Dravidian and African laguages, International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics23 (1), 34-52.

    Woodson, C.G. & Wesley, C.H. (1972). The Negro in Our History. Washington, D.C. Associated Publisher.

    Thursday, March 22, 2018

    Ancient DNA found in Africa Proves the Eurasian Haplogroups are African Haplogroups

    We now have ancient DNA (aDNA) from Africa. This aDNA allows us to determine the DNA carried by Africans during the Iberomaurusian  period . This aDNA is from Iberomaurusian skeletons exhumed from the archaeological site of Afalou  (15,000–11,000 YBP) in Algeria, and the archaeological site of Taforalt  (23,000–10,800 YBP) in Morocco (Kefi et al, 2016).

    The researchers found five different mtDNA haplogroups: H, U, J, J1c3f and T2 (Kefi et al, 2016).  Van de Loosdrechtet al,  (2018), found that Taforalt population carried haplogroups M1b and U6. This makes it clear that as early as 10.8kybp-23kybp Africans were carrying mtDNA haplogroups: H, U, J, J1c3f. M1b, T2 and U6. The Y-chromosome among the Taforalt population was haplogroup E1b1ba1 (M-78) (Loosdrechtet al,2018) .

    van de Loosdrecht M., Abdeljalil Bouzouggar, Louise Humphrey, Cosimo Posth, Nick Barton. (2018). Pleistocene North African genomes link Near Eastern and sub-Saharan African human populations. PUBLISHED ONLINE15 MAR 2018, DOI: 10.1126/science.aar8380

    Kefi R., Meriem Hechmi, Chokri Naouali, Haifa Jmel, Sana Hsouna, Eric Bouzaid, Sonia Abdelhak, Eliane Beraud-Colomb & Alain Stevanovitch (2016) On the origin of Iberomaurusians: new data based on ancient mitochondrial DNA and phylogenetic analysis of Afalou and Taforalt populations, Mitochondrial DNA Part A, 29:1, 147-157, DOI: 10.1080/24701394.2016.1258406

    Wednesday, February 21, 2018

    There was not an Iberian back Migration into North Africa

    Rosa Fregel, et al.(2018). Ancient genomes from North Africa evidence prehistoric migrations to the Maghreb from both the Levant and Europe.

    Argue that the “ farming and pottery production, could have been introduced into northern Morocco through sea voyaging by people from Iberia or the central Mediterranean as early as ca. 5400 BCE”, only problem with this hypothesis is that the oldest evidence for pottery comes from Morocco—not Iberia. Fregel et al, maintain that Iberia was the source of Maghrebi civilization eventhough they admit that Andalusian Early Neolithic cultures show North African influences before the Cardial expansion into the Western Mediterranean basin. The authors constantly contradict themselves, as evidence by the reality that if North African cultures existed in Iberia prior to the Cardial expansion, how could Cardial culture be evidence of North African adoption of Iberian culture, when the North African cultures preceed Cardial.

    Another problem is that not only did agro-patoral traditions in North Africa preceed the Iberian traditions --Bell Beaker pottery appears first in Africa, not Iberia makes their claim that North African cultures influenced North Africa and a back migration took place from Europe to North Africa without merit.This is why Fregel et al, constantly use the phrase “could” when they make claims about possible Iberian sources for North African technics and genes. This indicates that Iberians could not have introduced any genes into North Africa, but Fregel et al, pretend that the North African sites are more recent than the Iberian sites when this is not supported by the archaeological research.

    I agree with the authors that the IAM genomes are North African--but there is no evidence Iberians introduced any genes to North Africa. The presence of North African cultures in Iberia dating before Cardial and other Iberian cultures makes it clear that the Iberian genes came from North Africa and not the other way around.

    Sunday, February 18, 2018

    Haplogroup R1 was spread by African Kushites into Europe. There was no Back Migration from Europe to Africa

    Eugenia D’Atanasio†, Beniamino Trombetta†, Maria Bonito, Andrea Finocchio, Genny Di Vito, Mara Seghizzi, Rita Romano, Gianluca Russo, Giacomo Maria Paganotti, Elizabeth Watson, Alfredo Coppa, Paolo Anagnostou, Jean-Michel Dugoujon, Pedro Moral, Daniele Sellitto, Andrea Novelletto and Fulvio Cruciani. (2018).The peopling of the last Green Sahara revealed by high-coverage resequencing of trans-Saharan patrilineages. Genome Biology 201819:20 .

    Eugenia D’Atanasio et al, claim that Y-Chromosome R1 is of Eurasian origin. They argue that “our data suggest a European origin of R-V88 about 12.3 kya, considering both the presence of two Sardinian R-V88 basal clades (R-M18 and R-V35) and that the V88 marker arose in the R-M343 background, which in turn includes Near-Eastern/European lineages”. This contention is more conjecture than, reality because it lacks any collateral evidence from archaeology to support their claim. They believe that V88 returned to Africa via a back migration.
    The major problem with this proposition is that the Bell Beaker, Yamnaya and Caucasus hunter-gatherer populations who are believed to have introduced agro-pastoral traditions into Europe, and carriers of R1b and R1a were ḫЗšt, or Kushites. If the Bell Beaker , Corded Ware and early Europeans farmers came from the levant and Anatolia they probably had acquired these genes in Africa, before they migrated to Europe.

    Beginning as early as 5000 years ago Kushites the ḫЗšt, lived from the Nile Valley below Egypt, all the way to the Levant and Anatolia. The Kushites belonged to the C-Group culture of Nubia. The Kushites spoke Niger-Congo and Dravidian languages (1) . The Niger-Congo (NC) Superfamily of languages is the largest family of languages spoken in Africa. Researchers have assumed that the NC speakers originated in West Africa in the Inland Niger Delta. The research indicates that the NC speakers originated in the Saharan Highlands 12kya and belonged to the Ounanian culture (1).
    The Ounanian culture is associated with sites in central Egypt, Algeria, Mali, Mauretania and Niger (1). The Ounanian tradition is associated with the Niger-Congo phyla (1). This would explain the close relationship between the Niger-Congo and Nilo-Saharan languages.
    In the Eastern Sahara many individual types of tanged and shouldered arrowheads occur on early Holocene prehistoric sites along with Green Saharan/Wavy-line pottery (2-3) . 'Saharo-Sudanese Neolithic' wavy-line, dotted wavy line and walking-comb pottery was used from Lake Turkana to Nabta Playa, in Tibestim , Mauritania, on into in the Hoggar, in Niger. This pottery evolved into the Beaker Bell ceramics of Europe.
    The Kushites were called ḫЗšt in Africa and the Levant. Kushites had early settled in the Levant since Narmer times. We find  Narmer's name  on jars and  serekhs from excavations in Israel and Palestine , for example Tel Erani, Arad, 'En Besor, Halif Terrace/Nahal Tillah and more(4). A bulla dating to this period makes it clear that this part of the Negev was called ḫЗts.t ("Kush") or ḫ ("Kushite").
    The tangled Ounanian points are also found at Foum Arguin . These points were used from Oued Draa, in southern Morocco, to the Banc d’Arguin and from the Atlantic shore to the lowlands of northwestern Sahara in Mauritania . We now have DNA from Ounanian sites in Morocco.
    The Kushites from the Levant and Anatolia took cattle domestication and millet cultivation to Europe. There is no archaeological evidence of the herding of Cattle and millet cultivation older than the Nabta Playa material (4).

    At Nabta Playa the people herded cattle and cultivated crops. The Kushites cultivated pennisetum millet at Nabta Playa (c. 7950 BC ) and probably herded cattle (5-7).

    All the burials in Ifri n’Amr o’Moussa site IAM1-IAM7 , are devoid of any artifacts, except for an original funeral ritual, which consists of placing a millstone on the skull  . These burials were dated from 4,850 to 5,250 BCE, they carried U6, M1, T2, X and K (8). This suggest that Africans were already carrying this mtDNA. The spread of the Ounanians to Harif in the Levant explains the presence of these Kushite clades in the Levant and Anatolia.
    The Kushites were called ḫЗšt .Ta-Seti and Tehenu by the Egyptians (1). The Egyptian Pharaoh Sahure referred to the Tehenu leader as “Hati Tehenu” . The name  Hati, correspond to the name Hatti for a Kushite tribe in Anatolia. The Hatti  people often referred to themselves as Kashkas (9).
    The early hunter-gathers and farmers in Europe from the Levant herded cattle, and cultivated millet.

    A center of cattle worship was the Kiseiba -Nabta region in Middle Africa. At Nabta archaeologists have found the oldest megalithic site dating to 6000-6500 BC, which served as both a temple and calendar. This site was found by J. McKim Malville of the University of Colorado at Boulder and Fred Wendorf of Southern Methodist University.

    As a result, we have in the archaeological literature the name Ounan-Harif point. This name was proposed for the tanged points at Nabta Playa and Bir Kiseiba. Harifian is a specialized regional cultural development of the Epipalaeolithic of the Negev Desert. Harifian has close connections with the late Mesolithic cultures of Fayyum and the Eastern Deserts of Egypt, whose tool assemblage resembles that of the Harifian (9).
    Y-chromosome V88 (R1b1a) has its highest frequency among Chadic speakers, while the carriers of V88 among Niger-Congo speakers (predominately Bantu people) range between 2-66% . Haplogroup V88 includes the mutations M18, V35 and V7. Cruciani et al (10) revealed that R-V88 is also carried by Eurasians including the distinctive mutations M18, V35 and V7.
    Haplogroup R1b1-P25 was originally thought to be found only in Western Eurasia. Haplogroup R1b1* is found in Africa at various frequencies. Today R1b1 is called R-L278.
    The first offshoot of R1b-M343 was V88. The Y-Chromosome V88 is a signature African haplogroup. Toomas Kivisild (11)   noted: "Interestingly, the earliest offshoot of extant haplogroup R1b-M343 variation, the V88 sub-clade, which is currently most common in Fulani speaking populations in Africa (11-13), has distant relatives in Early Neolithic samples from across wide geographic area from Iberia, Germany to Samara ." The relative of V88 in ancient Europe was R1b1.
    In 2010, R-V88 was originally named R1b1a. Today R-V88 is named R1b1a2, and R1b1a is renamed R-L754.
    The ancient Europeans and Africans share R-L278 and R-L754. The earliest carrier of R-L278  in Europe was the hunter-gatherer  Villabruna man in Italy. Villabruna man lived 14kya. We also had hunter-gatherers carrying RL278 (R1b1) in Spain and Samara. This would place Africans carrying R-L278 in Europe long before the origination of the Bell Beaker and Yamnaya cultures.
    The Kushite haplogroups in Crete and West Asia varied. The Y-Chromosome among the Cretans and Anatolians were J,G, R1a1, R1b, T, K and H.
    Martinez et al (14), observed that in the case of the R1 haplogroup, while frequencies of 19.2% and 21.7% are found in the Heraklion Prefecture and Lasithi Prefecture populations, respectively, more than half (56.1%) of the Lasithi Plateau individuals are R1-M306-derived.
    In the case of Cretan E3b3-M123 (M34) chromosomes, they most likely signal East African or Middle-Eastern gene flow rather than European, due to the scarcity of this lineage in the latter area. Similarly, the presence of E3b-M35* individuals in the Heraklion Prefecture population could probably be attributed to an East-African or North-African contribution.
    The finding that other Minoans carried haplotype T and K also indicates that the Minoans were Blacks, not whites. There are a number of shared African and Indian Y-chromosome haplotypes. These haplotypes include Y-hg T-M70 and H1.
    The Kushites spread cultivation of Pennisetum millet and cattle herding into Anatolia, South Asia and Europe. As cattle herding Kushites frequently moved from place to place millet was an ideal domesticate.
    Millet was an especially favorite crop for the mobile Kushites because the grains are 1) a high yield per plant; 2) millet is drought tolerant and can be grown in various terrains; 3) millet has a short growing season so pastoralists  could grow and harvest their crops in time to move their camp(s); and 4) the panicum millet has shallow roots so Kushite farmers could cultivate the crop with a hoe (7).
    Ounanians crossed the Straits of Gibraltar and settled Iberia. Here they met Iberian hunter-gatherers.
    Between 3200-2900 BC, African culture and people began to migrate into Iberia  and introduced megaliths and the Bell Beaker culture (15). Spanish researchers accepted the reality that the Iberia Peninsula owed the major parts of Neolithic Iberia to African immigrants (15-17).
     MacWhite (16) and Olalde et al (18), claims there was a close relationship between Iberia and Britain.  These researchers admit that Portugal and Brittany were settled by Megalithic Africans who founded respectively the Mugem and Teviec sepultures ( 16).
    Iñigo Olalde et al (18) discuss the spread of Bell Beaker culture across Europe 2.7 kya. These researchers found  limited genetic affinity between individuals from Iberia and central Europeans.  Iñigo Olalde et al (18)  concludes that migration probably played an insignificant mechanism in the spread of R1 within the two areas. 
    The African Sahara  and Morocco was a major source for the Bell Beaker and Corded Ware cultural complex. The Proto-Beaker pottery dates back to 4500 BC in the Sahara (17) .
     Daugas et al (19) provides a number of radio carbon dates for the Bell Beaker complex in North Africa. We  find Beaker Bell ware dating to 3700 BC in Morocco. By 2700 BC we see the expansion of Beaker complex into Iberia (19). The Iberian Bell Beaker complex is associated with the “Maritime tradition” (20-22).

    There are numerous Bell Beaker sites in the Sahara and Morocco. A center of the Moroccan Beaker complex ceramics and arrowheads come from Hassi Ouenzga and in the cave of Ifri Ouberrid  . Artifacts  found at these sites are similar to Iberian Beaker complex forms ( 23). The interesting fact about the discovery of these artifacts is that they were widespread across the Middle Atlas mountains at sites such as El-Kiffen, Skhirat – de Rouazi,  Kehf, That el Gher and Ifri Ouberrid (23-25). This finding matches Turek (22); which explains the spread of typically beaker style stamped decoration Bell Beaker culture pottery from Morocco into Iberia, and thence the rest of Europe.
    Toomas Kivisild (11)  and Mathieson et al (21) , provides a detailed discussion of R1 in prehistoric Europe. One of the most interesting finding was the presence of V88 in ancient Europe (11,18,21). It is also interesting to note that the European Agro-Pastoral populations  associated with Bell Beaker and Yamnaya carry the genomes associated with Africans recorded in 2010 (17) .
    This makes it clear that the V88 sub-clades R-L278 and R-L754. , had relatives in Early Neolithic samples from across a wide geographic area from Iberia, Germany to Samara (11,17-18). This would place carriers of relatives of V88 among the Yamnaya and Bell Beaker people. Given the wide distribution of M269 in Africa, the carriers of this haplogroup in Neolithic Europe were probably also Africans since the Bell Beaker people/culture originated in Morocco as noted by Turek (22).

    In summary,  the research makes it clear that the European Neolithic was began by Yamnaya and Bell Beaker people who were Kushites that had migrated to Europe from the Levant and Anatolia. The early European farmers cultivated millet and herded cattle. It is clear these Neolithic "Europeans" from the Levant and Anatolia, were Africans who took the Nabta Playa cultural traditions into the Levant and Anatolia, and thence to Europe by the Bell Beaker and Yamnaya populations. This is supported by the settlement of Kushites from Nabta Playa who took the R1 haplogroup,  Ounan-Harifian cultural traditions, millet and cattle domestication into the Levant; and from there into Europe.

    1. Winters, C. (2012). Origin of the Niger-Congo Speakers. WebmedCentral GENETICS,3(3): WMC003149 doi: 10.9754/journal.wmc.2012.003149
    2. Drake N A, Roger M. Blench, Simon J. Armitage, Charlie S. Bristow, and Kevin H. White. (2010). Ancient watercourses and biogeography of the Sahara explain the peopling of the desert,  Proceedings of the National Academy of Scienece. 2011 108 (2) 458-462; published ahead of print December 27,2010, doi:10.1073/pnas.1012231108
    3. Vernet R, Ott M, Tarrou L, Gallin A, Géoris-Creuseveau J.  (2007). Excavation of the mound of FA 10 (Banc d'Arguin) and its contribution to the knowledge of the culture paleolithical Foum Arguin, northwestern Sahara (Translated from French) J Afr Archaeol 5:17–46.
    4. Egyptian-Canaanite Interaction at Nahal Tillah, Israel (ca. 4500-3000 B. C. E.): An Interim Report on the 1994-1995 Excavations. Available from: [accessed Dec 26 2017].

    5.Brass, M. (2013). Revisiting a hoary chestnut: the nature of early cattle domestication in North-East Africa. Sahara (Segrate, Italy), 24, 65–70.

    6. Mitchell P., Paul Lane (Ed.),(2013). The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology. Oxford .

    7. Miller N.F., Robert N Spengler, Michael Frachetti. (2010). Millet cultivation across Eurasia: Origins, spread, and the influence of seasonal climate, The Holocene , Vol. 26 10:1566-1575

    8. Fregel  R, et al (2017). Neolithization of North Africa involved the migration of people from both the Levant and Europe. bioRxiv 191569; doi:
    9.  Winters, C. (2018). The Kushites: Who, What, When, Where. Createspace.

    10. Cruciani F, Trombetta B, Sellitto D, Massaia A, Destro-Bisol G, Watson E, Beraud Colomb E, Dugoujon JM, Moral P and Scozzari R (2010). Human Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88: a paternal genetic record of early mid Holocene trans-Saharan connections and the spread of Chadic languages. European Journal of Human Genetics 18 800–807. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.231
    12, Winters C (2010). A Sub-Saharan Origin of the Early European Farmers. Comment: Ancient DNA from European Early Neolithic Farmers Reveals Their Near Eastern Affinities, by Wolfgang Haak et al , PLOS Biology, November 9, 2010,
    13. Winters C (2011). Possible African origin of Y-Chromosome R1-M173. International Journal of Science and Nature 2(4) 743-745. Available:
    14. Martinez L,  et al , Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau, Eur J Hum Genet. 2007
    15. Lahovary N (1963). Dravidian Origins and the West. India, Madras: Longmans.
    16. MacWhite E (1947). Studios sobre las relaciones atlanticas de la peninsula hispanica en la edad del bronce. Dissertationes Matritenses 12.
    17. Winters,C. (2017).  A GENETIC CHRONOLOGY OF AFRICAN Y-CHROMOSOMES R-V88 AND R-M269 IN AFRICA AND EURASIA .  Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences, Vol. 7 (2) 24-37.
    18. Olalde I, Brace S, Allentoft ME, Armit I, Kristiansen K et al., (2017). The Beaker Phenomenon and the Genomic Transformation of Northwest Europe. bioRxiv vol doi:
    19. Daugas JP, Raynal J-P, Ballouche A, Occhietti S, Pichet P, Evin J, Texier J-P and Debenath A (1989). Le Neolithique Nord-Atlantique Du Maroc: Premier Essai De Chronolgie Par Le Radiocarbon, (C.R. Academy of Sciences, Paris, 308, France), Serie II, 681-687.
    20. Mathieson I, Lazaridis I, Rohland N et al., (2015). Genome-wide patterns of selection in 230 ancient Eurasians. Nature 528 499–503. doi:10.1038/nature16152
    21. Mathieson I, Roodenberg SA, Posth C et al., (2017). The Genomic History of Southeastern Europe. Available:
    22.Turek, J. 2012: Chapter 8 – “Origin of the Bell Beaker phenomenon. The Moroccan connection”, In: Fokkens, H. & F. Nicolis (eds) 2012: Background to Beakers. Inquiries into regional cultural backgrounds of the Bell Beaker complex. Leiden: Sidestone Press.
    23.Mikdad A (1998). Étude Préliminaire Et Datation De Quelques Éléments Campaniformes Du Site De Kehf-el-Baroud, Maroc, (AVA-Forschungen, Bd. 18, Mainz, Germany) 243-252.
    24.Guilaine J (1976). La Civilisation Du Vase Campaniforme Dans Le Midi De La France, Actes Du Syposium Sur La Civilisation Des Gobelets Campaniformes, (Germany, Oberried, Bussum-Haarlem) 351-370.
    25. Nekkal F and Mikdad A (2014). Quelques données sur la découverte de céramiques campaniformes au Maroc [Some data on the discovery of Bell Beaker pottery in Morocco]. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies 8(2) 632-638.