Friday, September 22, 2017

The Neolithic Process of North Africa was done by Africans-Not Eurasians

Niger-Congo Speakers probably played an important role in the peopling of the Sahara. Drake et al make it clear there was considerable human activity in the Sahara before it became a desert[1]. Drake et al [1] provides evidence that the original settlers of this wet Sahara, who used aquatic tool kits, were Nilo-Saharan (NS) speakers. The authors also recognized another Saharan culture that played a role in the peopling of the desert. This population hunted animals with the bow-and –arrow; they are associated with the Ounanian culture. The Ounanian culture existed 12kya [3].
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The IAM people [Early Neolithic Moroccans] (5), were nothing more than hunter-gatherer Kushites that had originally belonged to the Ounanian Culture (3-4). The Ounanians, like their Kushite descendants were great archers and based their civilization on hunting using the bow, and limited cattle domestication (3-4).

The Ounanian culture was first described by Breuil in 1930 at Ounan to the south of Taodeni in northern Mali. Ounanian Points are suggested to be the hallmark of the some Epipaleolithic industries in the central Sahara, the Sahel and northern Sudan, and dated to the early Holocene.


The Ounanian culture is associated with sites in central Egypt, Algeria, Mali, Mauretania and Niger [3-4]. The Ounanian tradition is probably associated with the Niger-Congo phyla. This would explain the close relationship between the Niger-Congo and Nilo-Saharan languages[3].


The original homeland of the Niger-Congo speakers was probably situated in the Saharan Highlands during the Ounanian period. From here NC populations migrated into the Fezzan, Nile Valley and Sudan as their original homeland became more and more arid.


In the Eastern Sahara many individual types of tanged and shouldered arrowheads occur on early Holocene prehistoric sites along with Green Saharan/Wavy-line pottery (1-2) . 'Saharo-Sudanese Neolithic' wavy-line, dotted wavy line and walking-comb pottery was used from Lake Turkana to Nabta Playa, in Tibestim , Mauritania, on into in the Hoggar, in Niger. This pottery evolved into the Beaker Bell ceramics.
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Wavy-line pottery 

The Ounanian culture was not isolated in Africa. It was spread into the Levant. As a result, we have in the archaeological literature the name Ounan-Harif point. This name was proposed for the tanged points at Nabta Playa and Bir Kiseiba .
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Tanged Point


Harifian is a specialized regional cultural development of the Epipalaeolithic of the Negev Desert. Harifian has close connections with the late Mesolithic cultures of Fayyum and the Eastern Deserts of Egypt, whose tool assemblage resembles that of the Harifian.


The tangled Ounanian points are also found at Foum Arguin . These points were used from Oued Draa, in southern Morocco, to the Banc d’Arguin and from the Atlantic shore to the lowlands of northwestern Sahara in Mauritania . We now have DNA from Ounanian sites in Morocco.


All the burials in Ifri n’Amr o’Moussa site IAM1-IAM7 , are devoid of any artifacts, except for an original funeral ritual, which consists of placing a millstone on the skull (5) . These burials were dated from 4,850 to 5,250 BCE, they carried U6, M1, T2, X and K (5). This suggest that Africans were already carrying this mtDNA. The spread of the Ounanians to Harif in the Levant explains the presence of these Kushite clades in the Levant and Anatolia. 

In summary, the Niger-Congo speakers or Kushites formerly lived in the highland regions of the Fezzan and Hoggar until after 4000 BC. The ancestors of the Kushites were the Ounanians who spread the Ounan-Harfian toolkit, pottery and arrows from throughout North Africa, into Iberia and the Levant. Originally hunter-gatherers the Proto-Niger- Congo people developed an agro-pastoral economy which included the cultivation of millet, and domestication of cattle (and sheep). It was these Kushites who introduced mtDNA U6, M1, T2, X and K; and Y-Chromosome R1b into Eurasian from their African homeland in the Sahel-Sahara. 

References:
1. Nick A. Drake, Roger M. Blench, Simon J. Armitage, Charlie S. Bristow, and Kevin H. White. (2010). Ancient watercourses and biogeography of the Sahara explain the peopling of the desert PNAS 2011 108 (2) 458-462; published ahead of print December 27,2010, doi:10.1073/pnas.1012231108
2. Vernet R, Ott M, Tarrou L, Gallin A, Géoris-Creuseveau J. (2007) Excavation of the mound of FA 10 (Banc d'Arguin) and its contribution to the knowledge of the culture paleolithical Foum Arguin, northwestern Sahara (Translated from French) J Afr Archaeol 5:17–46.
3. Winters C. (2012). Origin of the Niger-Congo Speakers. WebmedCentral GENETICS 2012;3(3). https://www.webmedcentral.com/article_view/3149 
4. Winters, C. (2017)A GENETIC CHRONOLOGY OF AFRICAN Y-CHROMOSOMES R-V88 AND R-M269 IN AFRICA AND EURASIA,http://www.cibtech.org/J-LIFE-SCIENCES/PUBLICATIONS/2017/VOL-7-NO-2/04-JLS-004-WINTERS-A-EURASIA.pdf
5. Fregel R, et al (2017). Neolithization of North Africa involved the migration of people from both the Levant and Europe. bioRxiv 191569; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/191569

Thursday, September 21, 2017

Neolithization of North Africa preprint

Rosa Fregel  R, et al (2017). Neolithization of North Africa involved the migration of people from both the Levant and Europe. bioRxiv 191569; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/191569

Interesting paper. It promotes the idea of a back migration to Africa. It is interesting because the results parallel archaeological findings in the Neolithic sites in North Africa and Andalusian Early Neolithic and Cardial cultures, and ivory tools associated Iberian Neolithic sites.

The major problem with the paper is that it fails to explain that the earliest sites for these artifacts including bell beaker are found in North Africa--not Europe. as a result. we have more evidence that U6, M1, T2, X and K originated in Africa not Europe The Bell Beaker sites in North Africa date to 5kya, while the Spanish Bell Beaker sites only date to the 2nd Millennium BC.

See:C. Winters,A GENETIC CHRONOLOGY OF AFRICAN Y-CHROMOSOMES R-V88 AND R-M269 IN AFRICA AND EURASIA,http://www.cibtech.org/J-LIFE-SCIENCES/PUBLICATIONS/2017/VOL-7-NO-2/04-JLS-004-WINTERS-A-EURASIA.pdf

Martín-Socas D, et al. (2004).Cueva de El Toro (Antequera, Málaga-Spain). A Neolithic Stockbreeding Community in the Andalusian region between VI-III millenniums B.C.. Documenta Praehistorica XXX:126-143 . [accessed Sep 22, 2017]. Available from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309558230_Cueva_de_El_Toro_Antequera_Malaga-Spain_A_Neolithic_Stockbreeding_Community_in_the_Andalusian_region_between_VI-III_millenniums_B C


Wednesday, September 20, 2017

V88 and the Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype

Now Geneticists are pretending V88 (R1b1a2) is M269 in relation to the migration of the CHG and EF populations from Africa into Eurasia, These Africans, the Kushites who introduced archery, farming and cattle rearing to Eurasia. 

Martiniano R, Cassidy LM, Ó'Maoldúin R, McLaughlin R, Silva NM, Manco L, et al. (2017) The population genomics of archaeological transition in west Iberia: Investigation of ancient substructure using imputation and haplotype-based methods. PLoS Genet 13(7): e1006852.https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1006852 

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Abstract


Recent ancient DNA work has demonstrated the significant genetic impact of mass migrations from the Steppe into Central and Northern Europe during the transition from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age. In Iberia, archaeological change at the level of material culture and funerary rituals has been reported during this period, however, the genetic impact associated with this cultural transformation has not yet been estimated. In order to investigate this, we sequence Neolithic and Bronze Age samples from Portugal, which we compare to other ancient and present-day individuals. Genome-wide imputation of a large dataset of ancient samples enabled sensitive methods for detecting population structure and selection in ancient samples. We revealed subtle genetic differentiation between the Portuguese Neolithic and Bronze Age samples suggesting a markedly reduced influx in Iberia compared to other European regions. Furthermore, we predict individual height in ancients, suggesting that stature was reduced in the Neolithic and affected by subsequent admixtures. Lastly, we examine signatures of strong selection in important traits and the timing of their origins.
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The authors argue that the three Bronze Age individuals carrying R1b1a2, represent R-M269, but this is false they represent V88 and M18. Moreover, they fail to show discontinuity because, we find R1b1a (R-L754) carried by Villabruna, who lived 15kya in north-west Italy, and was a member of the Epigravettian culture. R-L754 has a high frequentcy among Africans.

V88 and the Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype 

Euronuts have no limit to their blatant and stealthily rewriting of history to "whiteout" Black and African people. The aDNA of the CHG and EF of Europe is R1b1a2. Although ISOGG 216 makes it clear this haplogroup is V88, in the research literature they are referring to this clade (R1b1a2) as R1b-P312/M269 , eventhough M269 is R1b1a1a2.

The presence of R1b1a2 in Europe is explained by the migration of the Kushites into Europe via Gibraltar and Anatolia

Sunday, August 6, 2017

The Ancient Minoans were Mande Speakers not Greeks



Eurocentrists never give up trying to "white out", Blacks from ancient history. Many of the Minoan murals were repainted to make them look more European. But The Minoans were Blacks.





Population genetics can not change history and archaeology except in the mind of the confused and promoters of Eurocentrism. The Greeks made it clear the Minoans came from Africa and were descendants of the Garamantes.

The Garamantes founded civilization in Minoa, or ancient Crete.The Garamantes were Mande speakers not Berbers.

The Tuareg did not come from the Fezzan, they originated in the East. According to Tuareg tradition they originated in the Tafilalt or Tafilet (Arabic: تافيلالت‎) a important oasis of the Moroccan Sahara, and migrated from there to the Fezzan.


The Ancient Minoans: Keftiu were Mande Speakers 


Every since Arthur Evans discovered the Hieroglyphic and Linear A writing of Crete there has been a search for the authors of this writing.

Some Grecian traditions indicate that Libyans (called Garamante) formerly lived on Crete. This suggest that the Eteocretans may have spoken one of the ancient languages of Libya.

Sources agree that Garama was name of their capital city. Garamante was the name for the tribe.


Garama was the name of the capital city of the Garamantes. Pliny the Elder wrote"clarissimumque Garama caput Garamantum, the "well known Garam capital, of the Garamantes".See: www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/20....ert.kingdom.htm

A major group from Libya that settled Crete were the Garamante. Robert Graves in (Vol.1, pp.33-35) maintains that the Garamante originally lived in the Fezzan and fused with the inhabitants of the Upper Niger region of West Africa.

This theory is interesting because the chariot routes from the Garama, in the Fezzan terminated at the Niger river. In addition, the Cretan term for king "Minos", agrees with the Mande/Manding word for ruler "Mansa". Both these terms share consonantal agreement : M N S.

The name Garamante, illustrates affinity to Mande morphology and grammar. The Mande language is a member of the Niger-Congo group of languages. The name for the Manding tribe called "Mande", means Ma 'mother, and nde 'children', can be interpreted as "Children of Ma", or "Mothers children " (descent among this group is matrilineal) . The word Garamante,can be broken down into Malinke-Bambara into the following monosyllabic words Ga 'hearth', arid, hot'; Mante/Mande , the name of the Mande speaking tribes. This means that the term: Garamante, can be interpreted as "Mande of the Arid lands" or "Arid lands of the children of Ma". This last term is quite interesting because by the time the Greeks and Romans learned about the Garamante, the Fezzan was becoming increasingly arid.

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Keftiu


The Egyptians called the Cretans Keftiu. There is agreement between the Keftiu names recorded by Egyptian scribes (T.E. Peet, "The Egyptian writing board BM5647 bearing Keftiu names". In , (ed.) by S Casson (Oxford, 1927, 90-99)), and Manding names.


The root kef-, in Keftiu, probably is Ke'be, the name of a Manding clan , plus the locative suffix {i-} used to give the affirmative sense, plus the plural suffix for names {u-}, and the {-te} suffixial element used to denote place names, nationalities and to form words.

On the Egyptian writing board there are eight Keftiu names. These names agree with Manding names:

Keftiu....... Manding

sh h.r........ Sye

Nsy ..........Nsye

'ksh .........Nkyi

Pnrt Pe,..... Beni (name for twins)

'dm ..........Demba

Rs............. Rsa

This analogy between Keftiu and Manding names is startling.

In conclusion, the evidence of similarity between Keftiu names and names from the Manding languages appear to support Graves view that the Eteocretans, who early settled Crete may have spoken a language similar to the Mande people who live near the Niger. Conseqently, there is every possibility that the Linear A script used by the Keftiu, which is analogous to the Libyco Berber writing used by the Proto-Mande .This is further support to Cambell-Dunn' s hypothesis that the Minoans spoke a Niger-Congo language.

In addition, because the Keftiu were Africans, the haplogroups carried by the Minoans would have been African haplogroups. 
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As a result, when we find mtDNA U,T,N1 and K among the Anatolians, it was just a reflection of the Blacks/Kushites that dominated Anatolia

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Consequently, when we find that the Minoans carried haplogroups H (43.2%), T (18.9%), K (16.2%) and I (8.1%). Haplogroups U5a, W, J2, U, X and J were each identified in a single individual. The results correspond to the Anatolian mtDNA.

The Mande speakers, include the Djola and Mandekan of the geneticist carry 2% Eurasian admixture. The people in Mali carry the N and H haplogroups.
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The highest concentration of U5 is found among Berbers in NWA . It is also carried by Mande spekers and Fulani in West Africa . The Djola, Mande speakers also carry mtDNA M1, H and N. See Alexandra Rosa, et al, MtDNA Profile of West Africa Guineans: Towards a Better Understanding of the Senegambia, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1529-8817.2004.00100.x/full


The U5 haplogroup carried by the Mande, like other SSWA is characterized by 16189,16192,16270 and 16320.

The presence of hg U5, M1, N and H among the Mande speakers supports the linguistic evidence concerning the Keftiu.


The Y-chromosomes of Cretans also indicate the Cretans were Blacks Laisel Martinez et al , Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau, Eur J Hum Genet. 2007 http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v15/n4/full/5201769a.html provides a detailed discussion of the y-chromosomes in Crete.
The presence of y-chromosomes R1b, T, K and H in Crete indicate that the Cretans were Black.

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The genomic data from this period is important because the people of Abusir at this time would have been primarily Egyptian. As a result, the mtDNA carried by the Egyptians confirms the reality that the so-called Eurasian haplogroups are nothing more than African haplogroups.

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In Schuenemann et al, 2017, there were 100 mummies in the study. A total of 27 mummies were dated between 992-749BC. In Figure 1, you can see the clades carried by these Egyptians. Below are the frequencies of the haplogroups among Egyptians at this time:

  • Haplogroup Frequency
    U 18.5
    T 22.2
    J 18.5
    X 0.0675
    M1a 0.0675
    H 0.0675
    I 0.0675
    HV 0.037
    RO 0.037
    K 0.037
    N 0.037

The presence of these haplogroups among the Abusir population shows that the U,T, and J clades had a high frequency among the Egyptians, and that many of the so called Middle East clades were already present in Lower Egypt before the Greco-Romans, Turks and etc. ruled Egypt.

As a result, the finding of mtDNA U,T,J and N clades, and the Y-Chromosome R1 among, Anatolians, Cretans and Lower Egyptians explains the close relationship between the Minoans,and Anatolians. All of these people were Khas=Kushites, who had come from Upper Egypt and the Fezzan.

Wednesday, July 19, 2017

Requiem to the Ancient Egypt Forum of Egyptsearch Forums

Up to June 2017, a significant Afrocentric Forum/Discussion Group was the Ancient Egypt Forum of Egyptsearch Forums. This forum greatly influenced the study of the ancient history of Blacks Worldwide.

 Posters such as Iron Lion, Mike 111, Ish Gebor, Egmond Codfried,  Marc Washington, Narmerthoth, Zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova, xyyman ,  Amun-Ra The Ultimate, and the lioness Inc.. During the lifetime of the Ancient Egypt forum we had lively debates and photo essays that have influenced the study of Ancient Black Civilizations. Iron Lion, Mike 111, Ish Gebor, Egmond Codfried,  Marc Washington, Narmerthoth  and myself (Clyde Winters) have never been ashamed to admit that they were Afrocentric Researchers.

 Iron Lion made the public aware of the Muurish/Moorish history of Black Americans. It was Egmond Codfried and Marc Washington that highlighted the history of Blacks in Europe. Due to the research of Marc we became aware of the fact that Europeans only recently entered western Europe from Central Asia. In addition, Marc made wonderful Posters that summarized aspects of Black history.
Image result for Marc Washington Egyptsearch

Image result for Marc Washington Egyptsearch

Mike 111 and myself made wonderful photo essays relating to Black history. These photos provide iconographic evidence of the role of Blacks through every period in Black history. Mike has a beautiful website where you can find out any aspect of ancient Black History: http://www.realhistoryww.com/

It was fun debating lioness Inc. Debating lioness Inc., was fun because this poster included Eurocentrists around the world who would debate various themes to attack Afrocentrism. We knew it was more than one lioness because post would be published almost 24 hours and no single person could do this. The present poster using the lioness name is very ignorant.

Ish Gebor and Zarahan have provided the public with up-to-date resources to illuminate Black history.  Narmerthoth has provided us with the latest ideas about melanin  and business issues. All of these post will be greatly missed.


Today the Ancient Egypt forum is dead. The moderator has suspended some of the Afrocentric researchers that formerly posted at the site, and does not allow the posting of photo essays  which he  claims is spamming.   Although the site is dead its legacy will live on. Many recent books relating to ancient Black History in the past five years have photos that first appeared at Ancient Egypt.

Indeed, the Ancient Egypt Forum is dead--but it will be fondly remembered.